final v236 update (#7649)
[thirdparty/systemd.git] / NEWS
CommitLineData
d657c51f 1systemd System and Service Manager
220a21d3 2
a1b2c92d 3CHANGES WITH 236:
195b943d 4
89780840
ZJS
5 * The modprobe.d/ drop-in for the bonding.ko kernel module introduced
6 in v235 has been extended to also set the dummy.ko module option
7 numdummies=0, preventing the kernel from automatically creating
8 dummy0. All dummy interfaces must now be explicitly created.
195b943d 9
3925496a
LP
10 * Unknown '%' specifiers in configuration files are now rejected. This
11 applies to units and tmpfiles.d configuration. Any percent characters
12 that are followed by a letter or digit that are not supposed to be
13 interpreted as the beginning of a specifier should be escaped by
14 doubling ("%%"). (So "size=5%" is still accepted, as well as
15 "size=5%,foo=bar", but not "LABEL=x%y%z" since %y and %z are not
16 valid specifiers today.)
751223fe 17
e6b2d948 18 * systemd-resolved now maintains a new dynamic
89780840
ZJS
19 /run/systemd/resolve/stub-resolv.conf compatibility file. It is
20 recommended to make /etc/resolv.conf a symlink to it. This file
21 points at the systemd-resolved stub DNS 127.0.0.53 resolver and
22 includes dynamically acquired search domains, achieving more correct
23 DNS resolution by software that bypasses local DNS APIs such as NSS.
e6b2d948 24
67eb5b38
LP
25 * The "uaccess" udev tag has been dropped from /dev/kvm and
26 /dev/dri/renderD*. These devices now have the 0666 permissions by
27 default (but this may be changed at build-time). /dev/dri/renderD*
28 will now be owned by the "render" group along with /dev/kfd.
29
89780840
ZJS
30 * "DynamicUser=yes" has been enabled for systemd-timesyncd.service,
31 systemd-journal-gatewayd.service and
32 systemd-journal-upload.service. This means "nss-systemd" must be
33 enabled in /etc/nsswitch.conf to ensure the UIDs assigned to these
34 services are resolved properly.
67eb5b38 35
3925496a
LP
36 * In /etc/fstab two new mount options are now understood:
37 x-systemd.makefs and x-systemd.growfs. The former has the effect that
38 the configured file system is formatted before it is mounted, the
39 latter that the file system is resized to the full block device size
40 after it is mounted (i.e. if the file system is smaller than the
41 partition it resides on, it's grown). This is similar to the fsck
42 logic in /etc/fstab, and pulls in systemd-makefs@.service and
43 systemd-growfs@.service as necessary, similar to
44 systemd-fsck@.service. Resizing is currently only supported on ext4
45 and btrfs.
46
67eb5b38
LP
47 * In systemd-networkd, the IPv6 RA logic now optionally may announce
48 DNS server and domain information.
49
50 * Support for the LUKS2 on-disk format for encrypted partitions has
51 been added. This requires libcryptsetup2 during compilation and
52 runtime.
53
89780840 54 * The systemd --user instance will now signal "readiness" when its
67eb5b38
LP
55 basic.target unit has been reached, instead of when the run queue ran
56 empty for the first time.
57
8ea2dcb0
ZJS
58 * Tmpfiles.d with user configuration are now also supported.
59 systemd-tmpfiles gained a new --user switch, and snippets placed in
60 ~/.config/user-tmpfiles.d/ and corresponding directories will be
61 executed by systemd-tmpfiles --user running in the new
62 systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service and systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service
63 running in the user session.
64
65 * Unit files and tmpfiles.d snippets learnt three new % specifiers:
66 %S resolves to the top-level state directory (/var/lib for the system
67 instance, $XDG_CONFIG_HOME for the user instance), %C resolves to the
68 top-level cache directory (/var/cache for the system instance,
69 $XDG_CACHE_HOME for the user instance), %L resolves to the top-level
70 logs directory (/var/log for the system instance,
67eb5b38 71 $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/log/ for the user instance). This matches the
8ea2dcb0 72 existing %t specifier, that resolves to the top-level runtime
67eb5b38
LP
73 directory (/run for the system instance, and $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR for the
74 user instance).
75
76 * journalctl learnt a new parameter --output-fields= for limiting the
77 set of journal fields to output in verbose and JSON output modes.
78
79 * systemd-timesyncd's configuration file gained a new option
89780840
ZJS
80 RootDistanceMaxSec= for setting the maximum root distance of servers
81 it'll use, as well as the new options PollIntervalMinSec= and
82 PollIntervalMaxSec= to tweak the minimum and maximum poll interval.
67eb5b38
LP
83
84 * bootctl gained a new command "list" for listing all available boot
89780840 85 menu items on systems that follow the boot loader specification.
67eb5b38
LP
86
87 * systemctl gained a new --dry-run switch that shows what would be done
88 instead of doing it, and is currently supported by the shutdown and
89 sleep verbs.
90
e9ad86d5 91 * ConditionSecurity= can now detect the TOMOYO security module.
67eb5b38
LP
92
93 * Unit file [Install] sections are now also respected in unit drop-in
89780840 94 files. This is intended to be used by drop-ins under /usr/lib/.
67eb5b38 95
89780840 96 * systemd-firstboot may now also set the initial keyboard mapping.
67eb5b38 97
89780840
ZJS
98 * Udev "changed" events for devices which are exposed as systemd
99 .device units are now propagated to units specified in
100 ReloadPropagatedFrom= as reload requests.
67eb5b38 101
89780840
ZJS
102 * If a udev device has a SYSTEMD_WANTS= property containing a systemd
103 unit template name (i.e. a name in the form of 'foobar@.service',
104 without the instance component between the '@' and - the '.'), then
105 the escaped sysfs path of the device is automatically used as the
106 instance.
67eb5b38
LP
107
108 * SystemCallFilter= in unit files has been extended so that an "errno"
109 can be specified individually for each system call. Example:
110 SystemCallFilter=~uname:EILSEQ.
111
112 * The cgroup delegation logic has been substantially updated. Delegate=
113 now optionally takes a list of controllers (instead of a boolean, as
114 before), which lists the controllers to delegate at least.
115
89780840 116 * The networkd DHCPv6 client now implements the FQDN option (RFC 4704).
67eb5b38 117
89780840
ZJS
118 * A new LogLevelMax= setting configures the maximum log level any
119 process of the service may log at (i.e. anything with a lesser
120 priority than what is specified is automatically dropped). A new
121 LogExtraFields= setting allows configuration of additional journal
122 fields to attach to all log records generated by any of the unit's
123 processes.
67eb5b38 124
89780840
ZJS
125 * New StandardInputData= and StandardInputText= settings along with the
126 new option StandardInput=data may be used to configure textual or
127 binary data that shall be passed to the executed service process via
128 standard input, encoded in-line in the unit file.
67eb5b38
LP
129
130 * StandardInput=, StandardOutput= and StandardError= may now be used to
131 connect stdin/stdout/stderr of executed processes directly with a
132 file or AF_UNIX socket in the file system, using the new "file:" option.
133
89780840
ZJS
134 * A new unit file option CollectMode= has been added, that allows
135 tweaking the garbage collection logic for units. It may be used to
136 tell systemd to garbage collect units that have failed automatically
137 (normally it only GCs units that exited successfully). systemd-run
138 and systemd-mount expose this new functionality with a new -G option.
139
67eb5b38
LP
140 * "machinectl bind" may now be used to bind mount non-directories
141 (i.e. regularfiles, devices, fifos, sockets).
142
143 * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "calendar" for validating and
144 testing calendar time specifications to use for OnCalendar= in timer
145 units. Besides validating the expression it will calculate the next
146 time the specified expression would elapse.
147
148 * In addition to the pre-existing FailureAction= unit file setting
89780840
ZJS
149 there's now SuccessAction=, for configuring a shutdown action to
150 execute when a unit completes successfully. This is useful in
151 particular inside containers that shall terminate after some workload
152 has been completed. Also, both options are now supported for all unit
153 types, not just services.
67eb5b38
LP
154
155 * networkds's IP rule support gained two new options
dd014eeb 156 IncomingInterface= and OutgoingInterface= for configuring the incoming
67eb5b38
LP
157 and outgoing interfaces of configured rules. systemd-networkd also
158 gained support for "vxcan" network devices.
159
160 * networkd gained a new setting RequiredForOnline=, taking a
161 boolean. If set, systemd-wait-online will take it into consideration
162 when determining that the system is up, otherwise it will ignore the
163 interface for this purpose.
164
165 * The sd_notify() protocol gained support for a new operation: with
166 FDSTOREREMOVE=1 file descriptors may be removed from the per-service
167 store again, ahead of POLLHUP or POLLERR when they are removed
168 anyway.
169
3925496a
LP
170 * A new document UIDS-GIDS.md has been added to the source tree, that
171 documents the UID/GID range and assignment assumptions and
172 requirements of systemd.
173
174 * The watchdog device PID 1 will ping may now be configured through the
175 WatchdogDevice= configuration file setting, or by setting the
176 systemd.watchdog_service= kernel commandline option.
177
178 * systemd-resolved's gained support for registering DNS-SD services on
179 the local network using MulticastDNS. Services may either be
180 registered by dropping in a .dnssd file in /etc/systemd/dnssd/ (or
181 the same dir below /run, /usr/lib), or through its D-Bus API.
182
a327431b
DB
183 * The sd_notify() protocol can now with EXTEND_TIMEOUT_USEC=microsecond
184 extend the effective start, runtime, and stop time. The service must
185 continue to send EXTEND_TIMEOUT_USEC within the period specified to
186 prevent the service manager from making the service as timedout.
187
ea2a3c9e
LP
188 * systemd-resolved's DNSSEC support gained support for RFC 8080
189 (Ed25519 keys and signatures).
190
a1b2c92d
LP
191 * The systemd-resolve command line tool gained a new set of options
192 --set-dns=, --set-domain=, --set-llmnr=, --set-mdns=, --set-dnssec=,
193 --set-nta= and --revert to configure per-interface DNS configuration
194 dynamically during runtime. It's useful for pushing DNS information
195 into systemd-resolved from DNS hook scripts that various interface
196 managing software supports (such as pppd).
197
198 * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-namespace-path= command line
199 option, which may be used to make a container join an existing
200 network namespace, by specifying a path to a "netns" file.
201
3925496a
LP
202 Contributions from: Alan Jenkins, Alan Robertson, Alessandro Ghedini,
203 Andrew Jeddeloh, Antonio Rojas, Ari, asavah, bleep_blop, Carsten
204 Strotmann, Christian Brauner, Christian Hesse, Clinton Roy, Collin
ea2a3c9e 205 Eggert, Cong Wang, Daniel Black, Daniel Lockyer, Daniel Rusek, Dimitri
a1b2c92d
LP
206 John Ledkov, Dmitry Rozhkov, Dongsu Park, Edward A. James, Evgeny
207 Vereshchagin, Florian Klink, Franck Bui, Gwendal Grignou, Hans de
208 Goede, Harald Hoyer, Hristo Venev, Iago López Galeiras, Ikey Doherty,
209 Jakub Wilk, Jérémy Rosen, Jiahui Xie, John Lin, José Bollo, Josef
210 Andersson, juga0, Krzysztof Nowicki, Kyle Walker, Lars Karlitski, Lars
211 Kellogg-Stedman, Lauri Tirkkonen, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel,
212 Luca Bruno, Lucas Werkmeister, Lukáš Nykrýn, Lukáš Říha, Lukasz
213 Rubaszewski, Maciej S. Szmigiero, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcus Folkesson,
214 Martin Steuer, Mathieu Trudel-Lapierre, Matija Skala,
215 Matthias-Christian Ott, Max Resch, Michael Biebl, Michael Vogt, Michal
216 Koutný, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Muhammet Kara, Neil Brown, Olaf
217 Hering, Ondrej Kozina, Patrik Flykt, Patryk Kocielnik, Peter Hutterer,
218 Piotr Drąg, Razvan Cojocaru, Robin McCorkell, Roland Hieber, Saran
219 Tunyasuvunakool, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Shuang Liu, Simon
220 Arlott, Simon Peeters, Stanislav Angelovič, Stefan Agner, Susant
221 Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller, Tiago Salem
222 Herrmann, Tinu Weber, Tom Stellard, Topi Miettinen, Torsten Hilbrich,
223 Vito Caputo, Vladislav Vishnyakov, WaLyong Cho, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
224 Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeal Jagannatha
67eb5b38 225
ea2a3c9e 226 — Berlin, 2017-12-14
3754abc5 227
582faeb4
DJL
228CHANGES WITH 235:
229
2bcbffd6
LP
230 * INCOMPATIBILITY: systemd-logind.service and other long-running
231 services now run inside an IPv4/IPv6 sandbox, prohibiting them any IP
232 communication with the outside. This generally improves security of
233 the system, and is in almost all cases a safe and good choice, as
23d37367 234 these services do not and should not provide any network-facing
2bcbffd6
LP
235 functionality. However, systemd-logind uses the glibc NSS API to
236 query the user database. This creates problems on systems where NSS
237 is set up to directly consult network services for user database
238 lookups. In particular, this creates incompatibilities with the
239 "nss-nis" module, which attempts to directly contact the NIS/YP
240 network servers it is configured for, and will now consistently
241 fail. In such cases, it is possible to turn off IP sandboxing for
242 systemd-logind.service (set IPAddressDeny= in its [Service] section
243 to the empty string, via a .d/ unit file drop-in). Downstream
244 distributions might want to update their nss-nis packaging to include
245 such a drop-in snippet, accordingly, to hide this incompatibility
246 from the user. Another option is to make use of glibc's nscd service
247 to proxy such network requests through a privilege-separated, minimal
248 local caching daemon, or to switch to more modern technologies such
249 sssd, whose NSS hook-ups generally do not involve direct network
250 access. In general, we think it's definitely time to question the
251 implementation choices of nss-nis, i.e. whether it's a good idea
252 today to embed a network-facing loadable module into all local
253 processes that need to query the user database, including the most
254 trivial and benign ones, such as "ls". For more details about
255 IPAddressDeny= see below.
256
fccf5419
LP
257 * A new modprobe.d drop-in is now shipped by default that sets the
258 bonding module option max_bonds=0. This overrides the kernel default,
259 to avoid conflicts and ambiguity as to whether or not bond0 should be
260 managed by systemd-networkd or not. This resolves multiple issues
261 with bond0 properties not being applied, when bond0 is configured
262 with systemd-networkd. Distributors may choose to not package this,
263 however in that case users will be prevented from correctly managing
264 bond0 interface using systemd-networkd.
582faeb4 265
ef5a8cb1 266 * systemd-analyze gained new verbs "get-log-level" and "get-log-target"
21723f53
ZJS
267 which print the logging level and target of the system manager. They
268 complement the existing "set-log-level" and "set-log-target" verbs
269 used to change those values.
ef5a8cb1 270
fccf5419
LP
271 * journald.conf gained a new boolean setting ReadKMsg= which defaults
272 to on. If turned off kernel log messages will not be read by
21723f53
ZJS
273 systemd-journald or included in the logs. It also gained a new
274 setting LineMax= for configuring the maximum line length in
275 STDOUT/STDERR log streams. The new default for this value is 48K, up
276 from the previous hardcoded 2048.
fccf5419 277
21723f53
ZJS
278 * A new unit setting RuntimeDirectoryPreserve= has been added, which
279 allows more detailed control of what to do with a runtime directory
280 configured with RuntimeDirectory= (i.e. a directory below /run or
281 $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR) after a unit is stopped.
fccf5419
LP
282
283 * The RuntimeDirectory= setting for units gained support for creating
284 deeper subdirectories below /run or $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR, instead of just
285 one top-level directory.
286
287 * Units gained new options StateDirectory=, CacheDirectory=,
288 LogsDirectory= and ConfigurationDirectory= which are closely related
289 to RuntimeDirectory= but manage per-service directories below
21723f53 290 /var/lib, /var/cache, /var/log and /etc. By making use of them it is
fccf5419
LP
291 possible to write unit files which when activated automatically gain
292 properly owned service specific directories in these locations, thus
293 making unit files self-contained and increasing compatibility with
294 stateless systems and factory reset where /etc or /var are
295 unpopulated at boot. Matching these new settings there's also
296 StateDirectoryMode=, CacheDirectoryMode=, LogsDirectoryMode=,
297 ConfigurationDirectoryMode= for configuring the access mode of these
75dfbbac
LP
298 directories. These settings are particularly useful in combination
299 with DynamicUser=yes as they provide secure, properly-owned,
300 writable, and stateful locations for storage, excluded from the
301 sandbox that such services live in otherwise.
fccf5419
LP
302
303 * Automake support has been removed from this release. systemd is now
304 Meson-only.
305
306 * systemd-journald will now aggressively cache client metadata during
307 runtime, speeding up log write performance under pressure. This comes
308 at a small price though: as much of the metadata is read
309 asynchronously from /proc/ (and isn't implicitly attached to log
310 datagrams by the kernel, like UID/GID/PID/SELinux are) this means the
311 metadata stored alongside a log entry might be slightly
312 out-of-date. Previously it could only be slightly newer than the log
313 message. The time window is small however, and given that the kernel
314 is unlikely to be improved anytime soon in this regard, this appears
315 acceptable to us.
316
317 * nss-myhostname/systemd-resolved will now by default synthesize an
318 A/AAAA resource record for the "_gateway" hostname, pointing to the
319 current default IP gateway. Previously it did that for the "gateway"
320 name, hampering adoption, as some distributions wanted to leave that
321 host name open for local use. The old behaviour may still be
322 requested at build time.
323
324 * systemd-networkd's [Address] section in .network files gained a new
325 Scope= setting for configuring the IP address scope. The [Network]
326 section gained a new boolean setting ConfigureWithoutCarrier= that
327 tells systemd-networkd to ignore link sensing when configuring the
328 device. The [DHCP] section gained a new Anonymize= boolean option for
329 turning on a number of options suggested in RFC 7844. A new
330 [RoutingPolicyRule] section has been added for configuring the IP
331 routing policy. The [Route] section has gained support for a new
332 Type= setting which permits configuring
333 blackhole/unreachable/prohibit routes.
334
335 * The [VRF] section in .netdev files gained a new Table= setting for
336 configuring the routing table to use. The [Tunnel] section gained a
337 new Independent= boolean field for configuring tunnels independent of
338 an underlying network interface. The [Bridge] section gained a new
339 GroupForwardMask= option for configuration of propagation of link
340 local frames between bridge ports.
341
342 * The WakeOnLan= setting in .link files gained support for a number of
343 new modes. A new TCP6SegmentationOffload= setting has been added for
344 configuring TCP/IPv6 hardware segmentation offload.
345
346 * The IPv6 RA sender implementation may now optionally send out RDNSS
21723f53 347 and RDNSSL records to supply DNS configuration to peers.
fccf5419
LP
348
349 * systemd-nspawn gained support for a new --system-call-filter= command
21723f53
ZJS
350 line option for adding and removing entries in the default system
351 call filter it applies. Moreover systemd-nspawn has been changed to
fccf5419
LP
352 implement a system call whitelist instead of a blacklist.
353
354 * systemd-run gained support for a new --pipe command line option. If
355 used the STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR file descriptors passed to systemd-run
356 are directly passed on to the activated transient service
21723f53
ZJS
357 executable. This allows invoking arbitrary processes as systemd
358 services (for example to take benefit of dependency management,
359 accounting management, resource management or log management that is
360 done automatically for services) — while still allowing them to be
fccf5419
LP
361 integrated in a classic UNIX shell pipeline.
362
363 * When a service sends RELOAD=1 via sd_notify() and reload propagation
364 using ReloadPropagationTo= is configured, a reload is now propagated
365 to configured units. (Previously this was only done on explicitly
366 requested reloads, using "systemctl reload" or an equivalent
367 command.)
368
369 * For each service unit a restart counter is now kept: it is increased
370 each time the service is restarted due to Restart=, and may be
371 queried using "systemctl show -p NRestarts …".
372
44898c53
LP
373 * New system call filter groups @aio, @sync, @chown, @setuid, @memlock,
374 @signal and @timer have been added, for usage with SystemCallFilter=
fccf5419
LP
375 in unit files and the new --system-call-filter= command line option
376 of systemd-nspawn (see above).
377
378 * ExecStart= lines in unit files gained two new modifiers: when a
379 command line is prefixed with "!" the command will be executed as
380 configured, except for the credentials applied by
381 setuid()/setgid()/setgroups(). It is very similar to the pre-existing
382 "+", but does still apply namespacing options unlike "+". There's
383 also "!!" now, which is mostly identical, but becomes a NOP on
384 systems that support ambient capabilities. This is useful to write
385 unit files that work with ambient capabilities where possible but
386 automatically fall back to traditional privilege dropping mechanisms
387 on systems where this is not supported.
388
389 * ListenNetlink= settings in socket units now support RDMA netlink
390 sockets.
391
392 * A new unit file setting LockPersonality= has been added which permits
393 locking down the chosen execution domain ("personality") of a service
394 during runtime.
395
396 * A new special target "getty-pre.target" has been added, which is
397 ordered before all text logins, and may be used to order services
21723f53 398 before textual logins acquire access to the console.
fccf5419
LP
399
400 * systemd will now attempt to load the virtio-rng.ko kernel module very
401 early on if a VM environment supporting this is detected. This should
402 improve entropy during early boot in virtualized environments.
403
404 * A _netdev option is now supported in /etc/crypttab that operates in a
405 similar way as the same option in /etc/fstab: it permits configuring
21723f53
ZJS
406 encrypted devices that need to be ordered after the network is up.
407 Following this logic, two new special targets
fccf5419 408 remote-cryptsetup-pre.target and remote-cryptsetup.target have been
21723f53
ZJS
409 added that are to cryptsetup.target what remote-fs.target and
410 remote-fs-pre.target are to local-fs.target.
fccf5419
LP
411
412 * Service units gained a new UnsetEnvironment= setting which permits
21723f53
ZJS
413 unsetting specific environment variables for services that are
414 normally passed to it (for example in order to mask out locale
fccf5419
LP
415 settings for specific services that can't deal with it).
416
417 * Units acquired a new boolean option IPAccounting=. When turned on, IP
418 traffic accounting (packet count as well as byte count) is done for
419 the service, and shown as part of "systemctl status" or "systemd-run
420 --wait".
421
422 * Service units acquired two new options IPAddressAllow= and
423 IPAddressDeny=, taking a list of IPv4 or IPv6 addresses and masks,
424 for configuring a simple IP access control list for all sockets of
425 the unit. These options are available also on .slice and .socket
426 units, permitting flexible access list configuration for individual
427 services as well as groups of services (as defined by a slice unit),
428 including system-wide. Note that IP ACLs configured this way are
429 enforced on every single IPv4 and IPv6 socket created by any process
430 of the service unit, and apply to ingress as well as egress traffic.
431
21723f53 432 * If CPUAccounting= or IPAccounting= is turned on for a unit a new
608f70e6 433 structured log message is generated each time the unit is stopped,
fccf5419
LP
434 containing information about the consumed resources of this
435 invocation.
436
437 * A new setting KeyringMode= has been added to unit files, which may be
438 used to control how the kernel keyring is set up for executed
439 processes.
440
e06fafb2
LP
441 * "systemctl poweroff", "systemctl reboot", "systemctl halt",
442 "systemctl kexec" and "systemctl exit" are now always asynchronous in
443 behaviour (that is: these commands return immediately after the
21723f53
ZJS
444 operation was enqueued instead of waiting for the operation to
445 complete). Previously, "systemctl poweroff" and "systemctl reboot"
e06fafb2
LP
446 were asynchronous on systems using systemd-logind (i.e. almost
447 always, and like they were on sysvinit), and the other three commands
448 were unconditionally synchronous. With this release this is cleaned
449 up, and callers will see the same asynchronous behaviour on all
450 systems for all five operations.
451
452 * systemd-logind gained new Halt() and CanHalt() bus calls for halting
453 the system.
454
fccf5419
LP
455 * .timer units now accept calendar specifications in other timezones
456 than UTC or the local timezone.
457
f6e64b78 458 * The tmpfiles snippet var.conf has been changed to create
21723f53
ZJS
459 /var/log/btmp with access mode 0660 instead of 0600. It was owned by
460 the "utmp" group already, and it appears to be generally understood
461 that members of "utmp" can modify/flush the utmp/wtmp/lastlog/btmp
462 databases. Previously this was implemented correctly for all these
463 databases excepts btmp, which has been opened up like this now
464 too. Note that while the other databases are world-readable
465 (i.e. 0644), btmp is not and remains more restrictive.
f6e64b78 466
d55b0463
LP
467 * The systemd-resolve tool gained a new --reset-server-features
468 switch. When invoked like this systemd-resolved will forget
469 everything it learnt about the features supported by the configured
470 upstream DNS servers, and restarts the feature probing logic on the
cf84484a
LP
471 next resolver look-up for them at the highest feature level
472 again.
473
474 * The status dump systemd-resolved sends to the logs upon receiving
475 SIGUSR1 now also includes information about all DNS servers it is
476 configured to use, and the features levels it probed for them.
d55b0463 477
fccf5419
LP
478 Contributions from: Abdó Roig-Maranges, Alan Jenkins, Alexander
479 Kuleshov, Andreas Rammhold, Andrew Jeddeloh, Andrew Soutar, Ansgar
76451c1d
LP
480 Burchardt, Beniamino Galvani, Benjamin Berg, Benjamin Robin, Charles
481 Huber, Christian Hesse, Daniel Berrange, Daniel Kahn Gillmor, Daniel
482 Mack, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Șerbănescu, Davide Cavalca, Dimitri John
483 Ledkov, Diogo Pereira, Djalal Harouni, Dmitriy Geels, Dmitry Torokhov,
484 ettavolt, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Fabio Kung, Felipe Sateler, Franck Bui,
485 Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Insun Pyo, Ivan Kurnosov, Ivan Shapovalov,
486 Jakub Wilk, Jan Synacek, Jason Gunthorpe, Jeremy Bicha, Jérémy Rosen,
487 John Lin, jonasBoss, Jonathan Lebon, Jonathan Teh, Jon Ringle, Jörg
488 Thalheim, Jouke Witteveen, juga0, Justin Capella, Justin Michaud,
489 Kai-Heng Feng, Lennart Poettering, Lion Yang, Luca Bruno, Lucas
490 Werkmeister, Lukáš Nykrýn, Marcel Hollerbach, Marcus Lundblad, Martin
491 Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Grzeschik, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert,
492 Neil Brown, Nicolas Iooss, Patrik Flykt, pEJipE, Piotr Drąg, Russell
493 Stuart, S. Fan, Shengyao Xue, Stefan Pietsch, Susant Sahani, Tejun Heo,
494 Thomas Miller, Thomas Sailer, Tobias Hunger, Tomasz Pala, Tom
495 Gundersen, Tommi Rantala, Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, userwithuid,
496 Vasilis Liaskovitis, Vito Caputo, WaLyong Cho, William Douglas, Xiang
497 Fan, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
fccf5419 498
c1719d8b 499 — Berlin, 2017-10-06
fccf5419 500
4b4da299
LP
501CHANGES WITH 234:
502
503 * Meson is now supported as build system in addition to Automake. It is
504 our plan to remove Automake in one of our next releases, so that
505 Meson becomes our exclusive build system. Hence, please start using
506 the Meson build system in your downstream packaging. There's plenty
507 of documentation around how to use Meson, the extremely brief
508 summary:
509
510 ./autogen.sh && ./configure && make && sudo make install
511
512 becomes:
513
514 meson build && ninja -C build && sudo ninja -C build install
515
516 * Unit files gained support for a new JobRunningTimeoutUSec= setting,
517 which permits configuring a timeout on the time a job is
518 running. This is particularly useful for setting timeouts on jobs for
519 .device units.
520
521 * Unit files gained two new options ConditionUser= and ConditionGroup=
522 for conditionalizing units based on the identity of the user/group
523 running a systemd user instance.
524
525 * systemd-networkd now understands a new FlowLabel= setting in the
526 [VXLAN] section of .network files, as well as a Priority= in
527 [Bridge], GVRP= + MVRP= + LooseBinding= + ReorderHeader= in [VLAN]
528 and GatewayOnlink= + IPv6Preference= + Protocol= in [Route]. It also
529 gained support for configuration of GENEVE links, and IPv6 address
530 labels. The [Network] section gained the new IPv6ProxyNDP= setting.
531
9f09a95a 532 * .link files now understand a new Port= setting.
4b4da299
LP
533
534 * systemd-networkd's DHCP support gained support for DHCP option 119
535 (domain search list).
536
537 * systemd-networkd gained support for serving IPv6 address ranges using
538 the Router Advertisment protocol. The new .network configuration
539 section [IPv6Prefix] may be used to configure the ranges to
540 serve. This is implemented based on a new, minimal, native server
541 implementation of RA.
542
543 * journalctl's --output= switch gained support for a new parameter
544 "short-iso-precise" for a mode where timestamps are shown as precise
545 ISO date values.
546
547 * systemd-udevd's "net_id" builtin may now generate stable network
548 interface names from IBM PowerVM VIO devices as well as ACPI platform
549 devices.
550
551 * MulticastDNS support in systemd-resolved may now be explicitly
552 enabled/disabled using the new MulticastDNS= configuration file
553 option.
554
555 * systemd-resolved may now optionally use libidn2 instead of the libidn
7f7ab228
ZJS
556 for processing internationalized domain names. Support for libidn2
557 should be considered experimental and should not be enabled by
558 default yet.
4b4da299
LP
559
560 * "machinectl pull-tar" and related call may now do verification of
561 downloaded images using SUSE-style .sha256 checksum files in addition
562 to the already existing support for validating using Ubuntu-style
563 SHA256SUMS files.
564
565 * sd-bus gained support for a new sd_bus_message_appendv() call which
566 is va_list equivalent of sd_bus_message_append().
567
568 * sd-boot gained support for validating images using SHIM/MOK.
569
570 * The SMACK code learnt support for "onlycap".
571
572 * systemd-mount --umount is now much smarter in figuring out how to
573 properly unmount a device given its mount or device path.
5486a31d
ZJS
574
575 * The code to call libnss_dns as a fallback from libnss_resolve when
576 the communication with systemd-resolved fails was removed. This
577 fallback was redundant and interfered with the [!UNAVAIL=return]
578 suffix. See nss-resolve(8) for the recommended configuration.
579
9f09a95a
ZJS
580 * systemd-logind may now be restarted without losing state. It stores
581 the file descriptors for devices it manages in the system manager
38d93385 582 using the FDSTORE= mechanism. Please note that further changes in
9f09a95a
ZJS
583 other components may be required to make use of this (for example
584 Xorg has code to listen for stops of systemd-logind and terminate
585 itself when logind is stopped or restarted, in order to avoid using
586 stale file descriptors for graphical devices, which is now
587 counterproductive and must be reverted in order for restarts of
588 systemd-logind to be safe. See
589 https://cgit.freedesktop.org/xorg/xserver/commit/?id=dc48bd653c7e101.)
590
9d8813b3
YW
591 * All kernel install plugins are called with the environment variable
592 KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID which is set to the machine ID given by
593 /etc/machine-id. If the file is missing or empty, the variable is
594 empty and BOOT_DIR_ABS is the path of a temporary directory which is
38d93385 595 removed after all the plugins exit. So, if KERNEL_INSTALL_MACHINE_ID
9d8813b3
YW
596 is empty, all plugins should not put anything in BOOT_DIR_ABS.
597
184d2c15 598 Contributions from: Adrian Heine né Lang, Aggelos Avgerinos, Alexander
ac172e52
LP
599 Kurtz, Alexandros Frantzis, Alexey Brodkin, Alex Lu, Amir Pakdel, Amir
600 Yalon, Anchor Cat, Anthony Parsons, Bastien Nocera, Benjamin Gilbert,
601 Benjamin Robin, Boucman, Charles Plessy, Chris Chiu, Chris Lamb,
602 Christian Brauner, Christian Hesse, Colin Walters, Daniel Drake,
184d2c15
LP
603 Danielle Church, Daniel Molkentin, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Wang, Davide
604 Cavalca, David Herrmann, David Michael, Dax Kelson, Dimitri John
605 Ledkov, Djalal Harouni, Dušan Kazik, Elias Probst, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
606 Federico Di Pierro, Felipe Sateler, Felix Zhang, Franck Bui, Gary
ac172e52
LP
607 Tierney, George McCollister, Giedrius Statkevičius, Hans de Goede,
608 hecke, Hendrik Westerberg, Hristo Venev, Ian Wienand, Insun Pyo, Ivan
609 Shapovalov, James Cowgill, James Hemsing, Janne Heß, Jan Synacek, Jason
610 Reeder, João Paulo Rechi Vita, John Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jörg
611 Thalheim, Josef Andersson, Josef Gajdusek, Julian Mehne, Kai Krakow,
612 Krzysztof Jackiewicz, Lars Karlitski, Lennart Poettering, Lluís Gili,
613 Lucas Werkmeister, Lukáš Nykrýn, Łukasz Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas,
614 Marcin Bachry, Marcus Cooper, Mark Stosberg, Martin Pitt, Matija Skala,
615 Matt Clarkson, Matthew Garrett, Matthias Greiner, Matthijs van Duin,
616 Max Resch, Michael Biebl, Michal Koutný, Michal Sekletar, Michal
617 Soltys, Michal Suchanek, Mike Gilbert, Nate Clark, Nathaniel R. Lewis,
618 Neil Brown, Nikolai Kondrashov, Pascal S. de Kloe, Pat Riehecky, Patrik
619 Flykt, Paul Kocialkowski, Peter Hutterer, Philip Withnall, Piotr
620 Szydełko, Rafael Fontenelle, Ray Strode, Richard Maw, Roelf Wichertjes,
621 Ronny Chevalier, Sarang S. Dalal, Sjoerd Simons, slodki, Stefan
622 Schweter, Susant Sahani, Ted Wood, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller, Thomas
184d2c15
LP
623 H. P. Andersen, Timothée Ravier, Tobias Jungel, Tobias Stoeckmann, Tom
624 Gundersen, Tom Yan, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog,
ac172e52
LP
625 userwithuid, Vito Caputo, Waldemar Brodkorb, WaLyong Cho, Yu, Li-Yu,
626 Yusuke Nojima, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Дамјан
627 Георгиевски
4b4da299 628
ac172e52 629 — Berlin, 2017-07-12
4b4da299 630
a2b53448 631CHANGES WITH 233:
d08ee7cb 632
23eb30b3
ZJS
633 * The "hybrid" control group mode has been modified to improve
634 compatibility with "legacy" cgroups-v1 setups. Specifically, the
635 "hybrid" setup of /sys/fs/cgroup is now pretty much identical to
636 "legacy" (including /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd as "name=systemd" named
637 cgroups-v1 hierarchy), the only externally visible change being that
638 the cgroups-v2 hierarchy is also mounted, to
639 /sys/fs/cgroup/unified. This should provide a large degree of
640 compatibility with "legacy" cgroups-v1, while taking benefit of the
641 better management capabilities of cgroups-v2.
642
643 * The default control group setup mode may be selected both a boot-time
644 via a set of kernel command line parameters (specifically:
645 systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy= and
646 systemd.legacy_systemd_cgroup_controller=), as well as a compile-time
647 default selected on the configure command line
648 (--with-default-hierarchy=). The upstream default is "hybrid"
649 (i.e. the cgroups-v1 + cgroups-v2 mixture discussed above) now, but
650 this will change in a future systemd version to be "unified" (pure
651 cgroups-v2 mode). The third option for the compile time option is
652 "legacy", to enter pure cgroups-v1 mode. We recommend downstream
653 distributions to default to "hybrid" mode for release distributions,
654 starting with v233. We recommend "unified" for development
655 distributions (specifically: distributions such as Fedora's rawhide)
656 as that's where things are headed in the long run. Use "legacy" for
657 greatest stability and compatibility only.
658
659 * Note one current limitation of "unified" and "hybrid" control group
660 setup modes: the kernel currently does not permit the systemd --user
661 instance (i.e. unprivileged code) to migrate processes between two
662 disconnected cgroup subtrees, even if both are managed and owned by
663 the user. This effectively means "systemd-run --user --scope" doesn't
664 work when invoked from outside of any "systemd --user" service or
665 scope. Specifically, it is not supported from session scopes. We are
666 working on fixing this in a future systemd version. (See #3388 for
667 further details about this.)
668
fb7c4eff
MG
669 * DBus policy files are now installed into /usr rather than /etc. Make
670 sure your system has dbus >= 1.9.18 running before upgrading to this
671 version, or override the install path with --with-dbuspolicydir= .
672
23eb30b3
ZJS
673 * All python scripts shipped with systemd (specifically: the various
674 tests written in Python) now require Python 3.
675
d60c5270 676 * systemd unit tests can now run standalone (without the source or
4dfe64f8
ZJS
677 build directories), and can be installed into /usr/lib/systemd/tests/
678 with 'make install-tests'.
679
23eb30b3
ZJS
680 * Note that from this version on, CONFIG_CRYPTO_USER_API_HASH,
681 CONFIG_CRYPTO_HMAC and CONFIG_CRYPTO_SHA256 need to be enabled in the
682 kernel.
683
684 * Support for the %c, %r, %R specifiers in unit files has been
685 removed. Specifiers are not supposed to be dependent on configuration
686 in the unit file itself (so that they resolve the same regardless
687 where used in the unit files), but these specifiers were influenced
688 by the Slice= option.
689
5cfc0a84
LP
690 * The shell invoked by debug-shell.service now defaults to /bin/sh in
691 all cases. If distributions want to use a different shell for this
692 purpose (for example Fedora's /sbin/sushell) they need to specify
693 this explicitly at configure time using --with-debug-shell=.
694
2bcc3309
FB
695 * The confirmation spawn prompt has been reworked to offer the
696 following choices:
697
b0eb2944 698 (c)ontinue, proceed without asking anymore
dd6f9ac0 699 (D)ump, show the state of the unit
2bcc3309 700 (f)ail, don't execute the command and pretend it failed
d172b175 701 (h)elp
eedf223a 702 (i)nfo, show a short summary of the unit
56fde33a 703 (j)obs, show jobs that are in progress
2bcc3309
FB
704 (s)kip, don't execute the command and pretend it succeeded
705 (y)es, execute the command
706
707 The 'n' choice for the confirmation spawn prompt has been removed,
708 because its meaning was confusing.
709
d08ee7cb
LP
710 The prompt may now also be redirected to an alternative console by
711 specifying the console as parameter to systemd.confirm_spawn=.
712
8e458bfe
JW
713 * Services of Type=notify require a READY=1 notification to be sent
714 during startup. If no such message is sent, the service now fails,
715 even if the main process exited with a successful exit code.
716
85266f9b
LP
717 * Services that fail to start up correctly now always have their
718 ExecStopPost= commands executed. Previously, they'd enter "failed"
719 state directly, without executing these commands.
720
baf32786
MP
721 * The option MulticastDNS= of network configuration files has acquired
722 an actual implementation. With MulticastDNS=yes a host can resolve
23eb30b3 723 names of remote hosts and reply to mDNS A and AAAA requests.
fa8b4499 724
631b676b
LP
725 * When units are about to be started an additional check is now done to
726 ensure that all dependencies of type BindsTo= (when used in
727 combination with After=) have been started.
728
d08ee7cb
LP
729 * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "syscall-filter" which shows which
730 system call groups are defined for the SystemCallFilter= unit file
23eb30b3 731 setting, and which system calls they contain.
d08ee7cb
LP
732
733 * A new system call filter group "@filesystem" has been added,
23eb30b3 734 consisting of various file system related system calls. Group
d08ee7cb 735 "@reboot" has been added, covering reboot, kexec and shutdown related
23eb30b3 736 calls. Finally, group "@swap" has been added covering swap
d08ee7cb
LP
737 configuration related calls.
738
739 * A new unit file option RestrictNamespaces= has been added that may be
740 used to restrict access to the various process namespace types the
741 Linux kernel provides. Specifically, it may be used to take away the
23eb30b3
ZJS
742 right for a service unit to create additional file system, network,
743 user, and other namespaces. This sandboxing option is particularly
744 relevant due to the high amount of recently discovered namespacing
745 related vulnerabilities in the kernel.
d08ee7cb 746
23eb30b3
ZJS
747 * systemd-udev's .link files gained support for a new AutoNegotiation=
748 setting for configuring Ethernet auto-negotiation.
d08ee7cb
LP
749
750 * systemd-networkd's .network files gained support for a new
751 ListenPort= setting in the [DHCP] section to explicitly configure the
752 UDP client port the DHCP client shall listen on.
753
23eb30b3
ZJS
754 * .network files gained a new Unmanaged= boolean setting for explicitly
755 excluding one or more interfaces from management by systemd-networkd.
756
757 * The systemd-networkd ProxyARP= option has been renamed to
758 IPV4ProxyARP=. Similarly, VXLAN-specific option ARPProxy= has been
759 renamed to ReduceARPProxy=. The old names continue to be available
760 for compatibility.
761
762 * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring IPv6 Proxy NDP
763 addresses via the new IPv6ProxyNDPAddress= .network file setting.
764
765 * systemd-networkd's bonding device support gained support for two new
766 configuration options ActiveSlave= and PrimarySlave=.
767
768 * The various options in the [Match] section of .network files gained
769 support for negative matching.
770
d08ee7cb
LP
771 * New systemd-specific mount options are now understood in /etc/fstab:
772
773 x-systemd.mount-timeout= may be used to configure the maximum
774 permitted runtime of the mount command.
775
776 x-systemd.device-bound may be set to bind a mount point to its
777 backing device unit, in order to automatically remove a mount point
778 if its backing device is unplugged. This option may also be
779 configured through the new SYSTEMD_MOUNT_DEVICE_BOUND udev property
780 on the block device, which is now automatically set for all CDROM
781 drives, so that mounted CDs are automatically unmounted when they are
782 removed from the drive.
783
23eb30b3
ZJS
784 x-systemd.after= and x-systemd.before= may be used to explicitly
785 order a mount after or before another unit or mount point.
d08ee7cb
LP
786
787 * Enqueued start jobs for device units are now automatically garbage
788 collected if there are no jobs waiting for them anymore.
789
23eb30b3
ZJS
790 * systemctl list-jobs gained two new switches: with --after, for every
791 queued job the jobs it's waiting for are shown; with --before the
792 jobs which it's blocking are shown.
d08ee7cb
LP
793
794 * systemd-nspawn gained support for ephemeral boots from disk images
795 (or in other words: --ephemeral and --image= may now be
796 combined). Moreover, ephemeral boots are now supported for normal
797 directories, even if the backing file system is not btrfs. Of course,
baf32786
MP
798 if the file system does not support file system snapshots or
799 reflinks, the initial copy operation will be relatively expensive, but
800 this should still be suitable for many use cases.
d08ee7cb
LP
801
802 * Calendar time specifications in .timer units now support
803 specifications relative to the end of a month by using "~" instead of
804 "-" as separator between month and day. For example, "*-02~03" means
23eb30b3 805 "the third last day in February". In addition a new syntax for
d08ee7cb
LP
806 repeated events has been added using the "/" character. For example,
807 "9..17/2:00" means "every two hours from 9am to 5pm".
808
809 * systemd-socket-proxyd gained a new parameter --connections-max= for
810 configuring the maximum number of concurrent connections.
811
23eb30b3
ZJS
812 * sd-id128 gained a new API for generating unique IDs for the host in a
813 way that does not leak the machine ID. Specifically,
d08ee7cb 814 sd_id128_get_machine_app_specific() derives an ID based on the
baf32786 815 machine ID a in well-defined, non-reversible, stable way. This is
d08ee7cb
LP
816 useful whenever an identifier for the host is needed but where the
817 identifier shall not be useful to identify the system beyond the
818 scope of the application itself. (Internally this uses HMAC-SHA256 as
819 keyed hash function using the machine ID as input.)
820
821 * NotifyAccess= gained a new supported value "exec". When set
822 notifications are accepted from all processes systemd itself invoked,
823 including all control processes.
824
825 * .nspawn files gained support for defining overlay mounts using the
826 Overlay= and OverlayReadOnly= options. Previously this functionality
827 was only available on the systemd-nspawn command line.
828
829 * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --overlay= options gained support for
830 bind/overlay mounts whose source lies within the container tree by
831 prefixing the source path with "+".
832
833 * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --overlay= options gained support for
834 automatically allocating a temporary source directory in /var/tmp
835 that is removed when the container dies. Specifically, if the source
836 directory is specified as empty string this mechanism is selected. An
837 example usage is --overlay=+/var::/var, which creates an overlay
838 mount based on the original /var contained in the image, overlayed
839 with a temporary directory in the host's /var/tmp. This way changes
840 to /var are automatically flushed when the container shuts down.
841
baf32786
MP
842 * systemd-nspawn --image= option does now permit raw file system block
843 devices (in addition to images containing partition tables, as
844 before).
d08ee7cb
LP
845
846 * The disk image dissection logic in systemd-nspawn gained support for
847 automatically setting up LUKS encrypted as well as Verity protected
848 partitions. When a container is booted from an encrypted image the
849 passphrase is queried at start-up time. When a container with Verity
850 data is started, the root hash is search in a ".roothash" file
851 accompanying the disk image (alternatively, pass the root hash via
852 the new --root-hash= command line option).
853
854 * A new tool /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-dissect has been added that may
855 be used to dissect disk images the same way as systemd-nspawn does
856 it, following the Bootable Partition Specification. It may even be
857 used to mount disk images with complex partition setups (including
858 LUKS and Verity partitions) to a local host directory, in order to
859 inspect them. This tool is not considered public API (yet), and is
860 thus not installed into /usr/bin. Please do not rely on its
3b31c466 861 existence, since it might go away or be changed in later systemd
d08ee7cb
LP
862 versions.
863
864 * A new generator "systemd-verity-generator" has been added, similar in
baf32786 865 style to "systemd-cryptsetup-generator", permitting automatic setup of
d08ee7cb
LP
866 Verity root partitions when systemd boots up. In order to make use of
867 this your partition setup should follow the Discoverable Partitions
868 Specification, and the GPT partition ID of the root file system
869 partition should be identical to the upper 128bit of the Verity root
870 hash. The GPT partition ID of the Verity partition protecting it
871 should be the lower 128bit of the Verity root hash. If the partition
872 image follows this model it is sufficient to specify a single
873 "roothash=" kernel command line argument to both configure which root
874 image and verity partition to use as well as the root hash for
875 it. Note that systemd-nspawn's Verity support follows the same
876 semantics, meaning that disk images with proper Verity data in place
877 may be booted in containers with systemd-nspawn as well as on
878 physical systems via the verity generator. Also note that the "mkosi"
879 tool available at https://github.com/systemd/mkosi has been updated
880 to generate Verity protected disk images following this scheme. In
881 fact, it has been updated to generate disk images that optionally
882 implement a complete UEFI SecureBoot trust chain, involving a signed
883 kernel and initrd image that incorporates such a root hash as well as
884 a Verity-enabled root partition.
885
d08ee7cb
LP
886 * The hardware database (hwdb) udev supports has been updated to carry
887 accelerometer quirks.
888
889 * All system services are now run with a fresh kernel keyring set up
890 for them. The invocation ID is stored by default in it, thus
891 providing a safe, non-overridable way to determine the invocation
892 ID of each service.
893
894 * Service unit files gained new BindPaths= and BindReadOnlyPaths=
895 options for bind mounting arbitrary paths in a service-specific
896 way. When these options are used, arbitrary host or service files and
897 directories may be mounted to arbitrary locations in the service's
898 view.
899
900 * Documentation has been added that lists all of systemd's low-level
901 environment variables:
902
903 https://github.com/systemd/systemd/blob/master/ENVIRONMENT.md
904
905 * sd-daemon gained a new API sd_is_socket_sockaddr() for determining
906 whether a specific socket file descriptor matches a specified socket
907 address.
908
909 * systemd-firstboot has been updated to check for the
910 systemd.firstboot= kernel command line option. It accepts a boolean
911 and when set to false the first boot questions are skipped.
912
d08ee7cb 913 * systemd-fstab-generator has been updated to check for the
23eb30b3
ZJS
914 systemd.volatile= kernel command line option, which either takes an
915 optional boolean parameter or the special value "state". If used the
916 system may be booted in a "volatile" boot mode. Specifically,
917 "systemd.volatile" is used, the root directory will be mounted as
d08ee7cb 918 tmpfs, and only /usr is mounted from the actual root file system. If
23eb30b3
ZJS
919 "systemd.volatile=state" is used, the root directory will be mounted
920 as usual, but /var is mounted as tmpfs. This concept provides similar
d08ee7cb
LP
921 functionality as systemd-nspawn's --volatile= option, but provides it
922 on physical boots. Use this option for implementing stateless
923 systems, or testing systems with all state and/or configuration reset
924 to the defaults. (Note though that many distributions are not
23eb30b3 925 prepared to boot up without a populated /etc or /var, though.)
d08ee7cb
LP
926
927 * systemd-gpt-auto-generator gained support for LUKS encrypted root
928 partitions. Previously it only supported LUKS encrypted partitions
929 for all other uses, except for the root partition itself.
930
931 * Socket units gained support for listening on AF_VSOCK sockets for
932 communication in virtualized QEMU environments.
933
934 * The "configure" script gained a new option --with-fallback-hostname=
935 for specifying the fallback hostname to use if none is configured in
936 /etc/hostname. For example, by specifying
937 --with-fallback-hostname=fedora it is possible to default to a
23eb30b3 938 hostname of "fedora" on pristine installations.
d08ee7cb
LP
939
940 * systemd-cgls gained support for a new --unit= switch for listing only
941 the control groups of a specific unit. Similar --user-unit= has been
942 added for listing only the control groups of a specific user unit.
943
944 * systemd-mount gained a new --umount switch for unmounting a mount or
945 automount point (and all mount/automount points below it).
946
947 * systemd will now refuse full configuration reloads (via systemctl
948 daemon-reload and related calls) unless at least 16MiB of free space
949 are available in /run. This is a safety precaution in order to ensure
950 that generators can safely operate after the reload completed.
951
952 * A new unit file option RootImage= has been added, which has a similar
953 effect as RootDirectory= but mounts the service's root directory from
954 a disk image instead of plain directory. This logic reuses the same
955 image dissection and mount logic that systemd-nspawn already uses,
956 and hence supports any disk images systemd-nspawn supports, including
957 those following the Discoverable Partition Specification, as well as
958 Verity enabled images. This option enables systemd to run system
959 services directly off disk images acting as resource bundles,
960 possibly even including full integrity data.
961
962 * A new MountAPIVFS= unit file option has been added, taking a boolean
baf32786 963 argument. If enabled /proc, /sys and /dev (collectively called the
d08ee7cb
LP
964 "API VFS") will be mounted for the service. This is only relevant if
965 RootDirectory= or RootImage= is used for the service, as these mounts
966 are of course in place in the host mount namespace anyway.
967
968 * systemd-nspawn gained support for a new --pivot-root= switch. If
969 specified the root directory within the container image is pivoted to
970 the specified mount point, while the original root disk is moved to a
971 different place. This option enables booting of ostree images
972 directly with systemd-nspawn.
973
d08ee7cb 974 * The systemd build scripts will no longer complain if the NTP server
23eb30b3 975 addresses are not changed from the defaults. Google now supports
d08ee7cb
LP
976 these NTP servers officially. We still recommend downstreams to
977 properly register an NTP pool with the NTP pool project though.
978
c1ec34d1 979 * coredumpctl gained a new "--reverse" option for printing the list
d08ee7cb
LP
980 of coredumps in reverse order.
981
23eb30b3
ZJS
982 * coredumpctl will now show additional information about truncated and
983 inaccessible coredumps, as well as coredumps that are still being
984 processed. It also gained a new --quiet switch for suppressing
985 additional informational message in its output.
986
987 * coredumpctl gained support for only showing coredumps newer and/or
988 older than specific timestamps, using the new --since= and --until=
989 options, reminiscent of journalctl's options by the same name.
990
d08ee7cb 991 * The systemd-coredump logic has been improved so that it may be reused
23eb30b3 992 to collect backtraces in non-compiled languages, for example in
d08ee7cb
LP
993 scripting languages such as Python.
994
995 * machinectl will now show the UID shift of local containers, if user
996 namespacing is enabled for them.
997
baf32786 998 * systemd will now optionally run "environment generator" binaries at
d08ee7cb
LP
999 configuration load time. They may be used to add environment
1000 variables to the environment block passed to services invoked. One
baf32786 1001 user environment generator is shipped by default that sets up
23eb30b3
ZJS
1002 environment variables based on files dropped into /etc/environment.d
1003 and ~/.config/environment.d/.
d08ee7cb 1004
a2b53448
LP
1005 * systemd-resolved now includes the new, recently published 2017 DNSSEC
1006 root key (KSK).
1007
a2b53448
LP
1008 * hostnamed has been updated to report a new chassis type of
1009 "convertible" to cover "foldable" laptops that can both act as a
1010 tablet and as a laptop, such as various Lenovo Yoga devices.
1011
d08ee7cb
LP
1012 Contributions from: Adrián López, Alexander Galanin, Alexander
1013 Kochetkov, Alexandros Frantzis, Andrey Ulanov, Antoine Eiche, Baruch
1014 Siach, Bastien Nocera, Benjamin Robin, Björn, Brandon Philips, Cédric
1015 Schieli, Charles (Chas) Williams, Christian Hesse, Daniele Medri,
1016 Daniel Drake, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Wagner, Dan Streetman, Dave Reisner,
1017 David Glasser, David Herrmann, David Michael, Djalal Harouni, Dmitry
1018 Khlebnikov, Dmitry Rozhkov, Dongsu Park, Douglas Christman, Earnestly,
1019 Emil Soleyman, Eric Cook, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, Fionn
1020 Cleary, Florian Klink, Francesco Brozzu, Franck Bui, Gabriel Rauter,
a2b53448
LP
1021 Gianluca Boiano, Giedrius Statkevičius, Graeme Lawes, Hans de Goede,
1022 Harald Hoyer, Ian Kelling, Ivan Shapovalov, Jakub Wilk, Janne Heß, Jan
1023 Synacek, Jason Reeder, Jonathan Boulle, Jörg Thalheim, Jouke Witteveen,
1024 Karl Kraus, Kees Cook, Keith Busch, Kieran Colford, kilian-k, Lennart
1025 Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lucas Werkmeister, Lukas Rusak, Maarten de
1026 Vries, Maks Naumov, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Andre Lureau, Marcin Bachry,
1027 Mark Stosberg, Martin Ejdestig, Martin Pitt, Mauricio Faria de
1028 Oliveira, micah, Michael Biebl, Michael Shields, Michal Schmidt, Michal
1029 Sekletar, Michel Kraus, Mike Gilbert, Mikko Ylinen, Mirza Krak,
1030 Namhyung Kim, nikolaof, peoronoob, Peter Hutterer, Peter Körner, Philip
1031 Withnall, Piotr Drąg, Ray Strode, Reverend Homer, Rike-Benjamin
1032 Schuppner, Robert Kreuzer, Ronny Chevalier, Ruslan Bilovol, sammynx,
1033 Sergey Ptashnick, Sergiusz Urbaniak, Stefan Berger, Stefan Hajnoczi,
1034 Stefan Schweter, Stuart McLaren, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève,
1035 Taylor Smock, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tibor
1036 Nagy, Tobias Stoeckmann, Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Viktar
1037 Vaŭčkievič, Viktor Mihajlovski, Vitaly Sulimov, Waldemar Brodkorb,
1038 Walter Garcia-Fontes, Wim de With, Yassine Imounachen, Yi EungJun,
1039 YunQiang Su, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Александр
1040 Тихонов
1041
1042 — Berlin, 2017-03-01
d08ee7cb 1043
54b24597 1044CHANGES WITH 232:
76153ad4 1045
05f426d2
LP
1046 * udev now runs with MemoryDenyWriteExecute=, RestrictRealtime= and
1047 RestrictAddressFamilies= enabled. These sandboxing options should
1048 generally be compatible with the various external udev call-out
1049 binaries we are aware of, however there may be exceptions, in
1050 particular when exotic languages for these call-outs are used. In
1051 this case, consider turning off these settings locally.
1052
4ffe2479
ZJS
1053 * The new RemoveIPC= option can be used to remove IPC objects owned by
1054 the user or group of a service when that service exits.
1055
6fa44114 1056 * The new ProtectKernelModules= option can be used to disable explicit
4c37970d
LP
1057 load and unload operations of kernel modules by a service. In
1058 addition access to /usr/lib/modules is removed if this option is set.
6fa44114 1059
4a77c53d
ZJS
1060 * ProtectSystem= option gained a new value "strict", which causes the
1061 whole file system tree with the exception of /dev, /proc, and /sys,
1062 to be remounted read-only for a service.
1063
e49e2c25 1064 * The new ProtectKernelTunables= option can be used to disable
4a77c53d
ZJS
1065 modification of configuration files in /sys and /proc by a service.
1066 Various directories and files are remounted read-only, so access is
1067 restricted even if the file permissions would allow it.
1068
6fa44114 1069 * The new ProtectControlGroups= option can be used to disable write
4a77c53d
ZJS
1070 access by a service to /sys/fs/cgroup.
1071
1072 * Various systemd services have been hardened with
1073 ProtectKernelTunables=yes, ProtectControlGroups=yes,
1074 RestrictAddressFamilies=.
1075
4ffe2479
ZJS
1076 * Support for dynamically creating users for the lifetime of a service
1077 has been added. If DynamicUser=yes is specified, user and group IDs
1078 will be allocated from the range 61184..65519 for the lifetime of the
1079 service. They can be resolved using the new nss-systemd.so NSS
1080 module. The module must be enabled in /etc/nsswitch.conf. Services
1081 started in this way have PrivateTmp= and RemoveIPC= enabled, so that
1082 any resources allocated by the service will be cleaned up when the
4a77c53d
ZJS
1083 service exits. They also have ProtectHome=read-only and
1084 ProtectSystem=strict enabled, so they are not able to make any
1085 permanent modifications to the system.
4ffe2479 1086
171ae2cd 1087 * The nss-systemd module also always resolves root and nobody, making
4ffe2479 1088 it possible to have no /etc/passwd or /etc/group files in minimal
171ae2cd 1089 container or chroot environments.
4ffe2479
ZJS
1090
1091 * Services may be started with their own user namespace using the new
171ae2cd
LP
1092 boolean PrivateUsers= option. Only root, nobody, and the uid/gid
1093 under which the service is running are mapped. All other users are
1094 mapped to nobody.
4ffe2479
ZJS
1095
1096 * Support for the cgroup namespace has been added to systemd-nspawn. If
1097 supported by kernel, the container system started by systemd-nspawn
1098 will have its own view of the cgroup hierarchy. This new behaviour
1099 can be disabled using $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_USE_CGNS environment variable.
1100
1101 * The new MemorySwapMax= option can be used to limit the maximum swap
1102 usage under the unified cgroup hierarchy.
1103
1104 * Support for the CPU controller in the unified cgroup hierarchy has
1105 been added, via the CPUWeight=, CPUStartupWeight=, CPUAccounting=
1106 options. This controller requires out-of-tree patches for the kernel
1107 and the support is provisional.
1108
171ae2cd
LP
1109 * Mount and automount units may now be created transiently
1110 (i.e. dynamically at runtime via the bus API, instead of requiring
1111 unit files in the file system).
1112
1113 * systemd-mount is a new tool which may mount file systems – much like
1114 mount(8), optionally pulling in additional dependencies through
1115 transient .mount and .automount units. For example, this tool
1116 automatically runs fsck on a backing block device before mounting,
1117 and allows the automount logic to be used dynamically from the
1118 command line for establishing mount points. This tool is particularly
1119 useful when dealing with removable media, as it will ensure fsck is
1120 run – if necessary – before the first access and that the file system
1121 is quickly unmounted after each access by utilizing the automount
1122 logic. This maximizes the chance that the file system on the
1123 removable media stays in a clean state, and if it isn't in a clean
1124 state is fixed automatically.
4ffe2479
ZJS
1125
1126 * LazyUnmount=yes option for mount units has been added to expose the
1127 umount --lazy option. Similarly, ForceUnmount=yes exposes the --force
1128 option.
1129
1130 * /efi will be used as the mount point of the EFI boot partition, if
1131 the directory is present, and the mount point was not configured
1132 through other means (e.g. fstab). If /efi directory does not exist,
1133 /boot will be used as before. This makes it easier to automatically
1134 mount the EFI partition on systems where /boot is used for something
1135 else.
1136
171ae2cd
LP
1137 * When operating on GPT disk images for containers, systemd-nspawn will
1138 now mount the ESP to /boot or /efi according to the same rules as PID
1139 1 running on a host. This allows tools like "bootctl" to operate
1140 correctly within such containers, in order to make container images
1141 bootable on physical systems.
1142
4a77c53d 1143 * disk/by-id and disk/by-path symlinks are now created for NVMe drives.
4ffe2479
ZJS
1144
1145 * Two new user session targets have been added to support running
1146 graphical sessions under the systemd --user instance:
1147 graphical-session.target and graphical-session-pre.target. See
1148 systemd.special(7) for a description of how those targets should be
1149 used.
1150
1151 * The vconsole initialization code has been significantly reworked to
d4c08299 1152 use KD_FONT_OP_GET/SET ioctls instead of KD_FONT_OP_COPY and better
4ffe2479
ZJS
1153 support unicode keymaps. Font and keymap configuration will now be
1154 copied to all allocated virtual consoles.
1155
05ecf467 1156 * FreeBSD's bhyve virtualization is now detected.
4ffe2479 1157
d4c08299 1158 * Information recorded in the journal for core dumps now includes the
4ffe2479
ZJS
1159 contents of /proc/mountinfo and the command line of the process at
1160 the top of the process hierarchy (which is usually the init process
1161 of the container).
1162
171ae2cd 1163 * systemd-journal-gatewayd learned the --directory= option to serve
4ffe2479
ZJS
1164 files from the specified location.
1165
1166 * journalctl --root=… can be used to peruse the journal in the
1167 /var/log/ directories inside of a container tree. This is similar to
1168 the existing --machine= option, but does not require the container to
1169 be active.
1170
1171 * The hardware database has been extended to support
1172 ID_INPUT_TRACKBALL, used in addition to ID_INPUT_MOUSE to identify
1173 trackball devices.
1174
1175 MOUSE_WHEEL_CLICK_ANGLE_HORIZONTAL hwdb property has been added to
1176 specify the click rate for mice which include a horizontal wheel with
1177 a click rate that is different than the one for the vertical wheel.
1178
1179 * systemd-run gained a new --wait option that makes service execution
171ae2cd
LP
1180 synchronous. (Specifically, the command will not return until the
1181 specified service binary exited.)
4ffe2479 1182
171ae2cd 1183 * systemctl gained a new --wait option that causes the start command to
4a77c53d
ZJS
1184 wait until the units being started have terminated again.
1185
171ae2cd 1186 * A new journal output mode "short-full" has been added which displays
4ffe2479 1187 timestamps with abbreviated English day names and adds a timezone
171ae2cd
LP
1188 suffix. Those timestamps include more information than the default
1189 "short" output mode, and can be passed directly to journalctl's
1190 --since= and --until= options.
4ffe2479
ZJS
1191
1192 * /etc/resolv.conf will be bind-mounted into containers started by
1193 systemd-nspawn, if possible, so any changes to resolv.conf contents
1194 are automatically propagated to the container.
1195
1196 * The number of instances for socket-activated services originating
171ae2cd
LP
1197 from a single IP address can be limited with
1198 MaxConnectionsPerSource=, extending the existing setting of
1199 MaxConnections=.
4ffe2479 1200
4a77c53d
ZJS
1201 * systemd-networkd gained support for vcan ("Virtual CAN") interface
1202 configuration.
1203
1204 * .netdev and .network configuration can now be extended through
1205 drop-ins.
1206
4ffe2479
ZJS
1207 * UDP Segmentation Offload, TCP Segmentation Offload, Generic
1208 Segmentation Offload, Generic Receive Offload, Large Receive Offload
1209 can be enabled and disabled using the new UDPSegmentationOffload=,
1210 TCPSegmentationOffload=, GenericSegmentationOffload=,
1211 GenericReceiveOffload=, LargeReceiveOffload= options in the
1212 [Link] section of .link files.
1213
171ae2cd
LP
1214 * The Spanning Tree Protocol, Priority, Aging Time, and the Default
1215 Port VLAN ID can be configured for bridge devices using the new STP=,
1216 Priority=, AgeingTimeSec=, and DefaultPVID= settings in the [Bridge]
1217 section of .netdev files.
4ffe2479 1218
171ae2cd 1219 * The route table to which routes received over DHCP or RA should be
4a77c53d
ZJS
1220 added can be configured with the new RouteTable= option in the [DHCP]
1221 and [IPv6AcceptRA] sections of .network files.
1222
171ae2cd 1223 * The Address Resolution Protocol can be disabled on links managed by
4ffe2479
ZJS
1224 systemd-networkd using the ARP=no setting in the [Link] section of
1225 .network files.
1226
171ae2cd
LP
1227 * New environment variables $SERVICE_RESULT, $EXIT_CODE and
1228 $EXIT_STATUS are set for ExecStop= and ExecStopPost= commands, and
1229 encode information about the result and exit codes of the current
1230 service runtime cycle.
4ffe2479 1231
4a77c53d 1232 * systemd-sysctl will now configure kernel parameters in the order
1f4f4cf7 1233 they occur in the configuration files. This matches what sysctl
4a77c53d
ZJS
1234 has been traditionally doing.
1235
1236 * kernel-install "plugins" that are executed to perform various
1237 tasks after a new kernel is added and before an old one is removed
1238 can now return a special value to terminate the procedure and
1239 prevent any later plugins from running.
1240
76153ad4 1241 * Journald's SplitMode=login setting has been deprecated. It has been
d4c08299 1242 removed from documentation, and its use is discouraged. In a future
76153ad4
ZJS
1243 release it will be completely removed, and made equivalent to current
1244 default of SplitMode=uid.
1245
4a77c53d
ZJS
1246 * Storage=both option setting in /etc/systemd/coredump.conf has been
1247 removed. With fast LZ4 compression storing the core dump twice is not
1248 useful.
1249
4ffe2479
ZJS
1250 * The --share-system systemd-nspawn option has been replaced with an
1251 (undocumented) variable $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_SHARE_SYSTEM, but the use of
1252 this functionality is discouraged. In addition the variables
1253 $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_SHARE_NS_IPC, $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_SHARE_NS_PID,
1254 $SYSTEMD_NSPAWN_SHARE_NS_UTS may be used to control the unsharing of
1255 individual namespaces.
1256
171ae2cd
LP
1257 * "machinectl list" now shows the IP address of running containers in
1258 the output, as well as OS release information.
1259
1260 * "loginctl list" now shows the TTY of each session in the output.
1261
1262 * sd-bus gained new API calls sd_bus_track_set_recursive(),
1263 sd_bus_track_get_recursive(), sd_bus_track_count_name(),
1264 sd_bus_track_count_sender(). They permit usage of sd_bus_track peer
1265 tracking objects in a "recursive" mode, where a single client can be
1266 counted multiple times, if it takes multiple references.
1267
1268 * sd-bus gained new API calls sd_bus_set_exit_on_disconnect() and
1269 sd_bus_get_exit_on_disconnect(). They may be used to to make a
1270 process using sd-bus automatically exit if the bus connection is
1271 severed.
1272
1273 * Bus clients of the service manager may now "pin" loaded units into
1274 memory, by taking an explicit reference on them. This is useful to
1275 ensure the client can retrieve runtime data about the service even
1276 after the service completed execution. Taking such a reference is
1277 available only for privileged clients and should be helpful to watch
1278 running services in a race-free manner, and in particular collect
1279 information about exit statuses and results.
1280
4c37970d
LP
1281 * The nss-resolve module has been changed to strictly return UNAVAIL
1282 when communication via D-Bus with resolved failed, and NOTFOUND when
1283 a lookup completed but was negative. This means it is now possible to
1284 neatly configure fallbacks using nsswitch.conf result checking
1285 expressions. Taking benefit of this, the new recommended
1286 configuration line for the "hosts" entry in /etc/nsswitch.conf is:
1287
1288 hosts: files mymachines resolve [!UNAVAIL=return] dns myhostname
1289
1290 * A new setting CtrlAltDelBurstAction= has been added to
1291 /etc/systemd/system.conf which may be used to configure the precise
1292 behaviour if the user on the console presses Ctrl-Alt-Del more often
1293 than 7 times in 2s. Previously this would unconditionally result in
1294 an expedited, immediate reboot. With this new setting the precise
1295 operation may be configured in more detail, and also turned off
1296 entirely.
1297
1298 * In .netdev files two new settings RemoteChecksumTx= and
1299 RemoteChecksumRx= are now understood that permit configuring the
1300 remote checksumming logic for VXLAN networks.
1301
1302 * The service manager learnt a new "invocation ID" concept for invoked
1303 services. Each runtime cycle of a service will get a new invocation
1304 ID (a 128bit random UUID) assigned that identifies the current
1305 run of the service uniquely and globally. A new invocation ID
1306 is generated each time a service starts up. The journal will store
1307 the invocation ID of a service along with any logged messages, thus
1308 making the invocation ID useful for matching the online runtime of a
1309 service with the offline log data it generated in a safe way without
1310 relying on synchronized timestamps. In many ways this new service
1311 invocation ID concept is similar to the kernel's boot ID concept that
1312 uniquely and globally identifies the runtime of each boot. The
1313 invocation ID of a service is passed to the service itself via an
1314 environment variable ($INVOCATION_ID). A new bus call
1315 GetUnitByInvocationID() has been added that is similar to GetUnit()
1316 but instead of retrieving the bus path for a unit by its name
1317 retrieves it by its invocation ID. The returned path is valid only as
1318 long as the passed invocation ID is current.
1319
1320 * systemd-resolved gained a new "DNSStubListener" setting in
1321 resolved.conf. It either takes a boolean value or the special values
1322 "udp" and "tcp", and configures whether to enable the stub DNS
1323 listener on 127.0.0.53:53.
1324
1325 * IP addresses configured via networkd may now carry additional
1326 configuration settings supported by the kernel. New options include:
1327 HomeAddress=, DuplicateAddressDetection=, ManageTemporaryAddress=,
1328 PrefixRoute=, AutoJoin=.
1329
1330 * The PAM configuration fragment file for "user@.service" shipped with
1331 systemd (i.e. the --user instance of systemd) has been stripped to
1332 the minimum necessary to make the system boot. Previously, it
1333 contained Fedora-specific stanzas that did not apply to other
1334 distributions. It is expected that downstream distributions add
1335 additional configuration lines, matching their needs to this file,
1336 using it only as rough template of what systemd itself needs. Note
1337 that this reduced fragment does not even include an invocation of
1338 pam_limits which most distributions probably want to add, even though
1339 systemd itself does not need it. (There's also the new build time
1340 option --with-pamconfdir=no to disable installation of the PAM
1341 fragment entirely.)
1342
1343 * If PrivateDevices=yes is set for a service the CAP_SYS_RAWIO
1344 capability is now also dropped from its set (in addition to
1345 CAP_SYS_MKNOD as before).
1346
1347 * In service unit files it is now possible to connect a specific named
1348 file descriptor with stdin/stdout/stdout of an executed service. The
1349 name may be specified in matching .socket units using the
1350 FileDescriptorName= setting.
1351
1352 * A number of journal settings may now be configured on the kernel
1353 command line. Specifically, the following options are now understood:
1354 systemd.journald.max_level_console=,
1355 systemd.journald.max_level_store=,
1356 systemd.journald.max_level_syslog=, systemd.journald.max_level_kmsg=,
1357 systemd.journald.max_level_wall=.
1358
1359 * "systemctl is-enabled --full" will now show by which symlinks a unit
1360 file is enabled in the unit dependency tree.
1361
b4eed568
LP
1362 * Support for VeraCrypt encrypted partitions has been added to the
1363 "cryptsetup" logic and /etc/crypttab.
1364
1365 * systemd-detect-virt gained support for a new --private-users switch
1366 that checks whether the invoking processes are running inside a user
1367 namespace. Similar, a new special value "private-users" for the
1368 existing ConditionVirtualization= setting has been added, permitting
1369 skipping of specific units in user namespace environments.
1370
07393b6e
LP
1371 Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alexander Kuleshov, Alfie John,
1372 Andreas Henriksson, Andrew Jeddeloh, Balázs Úr, Bart Rulon, Benjamin
1373 Richter, Ben Gamari, Ben Harris, Brian J. Murrell, Christian Brauner,
1374 Christian Rebischke, Clinton Roy, Colin Walters, Cristian Rodríguez,
1375 Daniel Hahler, Daniel Mack, Daniel Maixner, Daniel Rusek, Dan Dedrick,
1376 Davide Cavalca, David Herrmann, David Michael, Dennis Wassenberg,
1377 Djalal Harouni, Dongsu Park, Douglas Christman, Elias Probst, Eric
1378 Cook, Erik Karlsson, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, Felix Zhang,
1379 Franck Bui, George Hilliard, Giuseppe Scrivano, HATAYAMA Daisuke,
1380 Heikki Kemppainen, Hendrik Brueckner, hi117, Ismo Puustinen, Ivan
1381 Shapovalov, Jakub Filak, Jakub Wilk, Jan Synacek, Jason Kölker,
1382 Jean-Sébastien Bour, Jiří Pírko, Jonathan Boulle, Jorge Niedbalski,
1383 Keith Busch, kristbaum, Kyle Russell, Lans Zhang, Lennart Poettering,
1384 Leonardo Brondani Schenkel, Lucas Werkmeister, Luca Bruno, Lukáš
1385 Nykrýn, Maciek Borzecki, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou,
1386 Marcel Holtmann, Marcos Mello, Martin Ejdestig, Martin Pitt, Matej
1387 Habrnal, Maxime de Roucy, Michael Biebl, Michael Chapman, Michael Hoy,
1388 Michael Olbrich, Michael Pope, Michal Sekletar, Michal Soltys, Mike
1389 Gilbert, Nick Owens, Patrik Flykt, Paweł Szewczyk, Peter Hutterer,
1390 Piotr Drąg, Reid Price, Richard W.M. Jones, Roman Stingler, Ronny
1391 Chevalier, Seraphime Kirkovski, Stefan Schweter, Steve Muir, Susant
1392 Sahani, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tiago Levit,
1393 Tobias Jungel, Tomáš Janoušek, Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, Umut
1394 Tezduyar Lindskog, Vito Caputo, WaLyong Cho, Wilhelm Schuster, Yann
1395 E. MORIN, Yi EungJun, Yuki Inoguchi, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
1396 Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Zeal Jagannatha
1397
54b24597 1398 — Santa Fe, 2016-11-03
07393b6e 1399
5cd118ba
MP
1400CHANGES WITH 231:
1401
fcd30826
LP
1402 * In service units the various ExecXYZ= settings have been extended
1403 with an additional special character as first argument of the
43eb109a 1404 assigned value: if the character '+' is used the specified command
fcd30826
LP
1405 line it will be run with full privileges, regardless of User=,
1406 Group=, CapabilityBoundingSet= and similar options. The effect is
1407 similar to the existing PermissionsStartOnly= option, but allows
1408 configuration of this concept for each executed command line
1409 independently.
1410
1411 * Services may now alter the service watchdog timeout at runtime by
1412 sending a WATCHDOG_USEC= message via sd_notify().
1413
1414 * MemoryLimit= and related unit settings now optionally take percentage
1415 specifications. The percentage is taken relative to the amount of
1416 physical memory in the system (or in case of containers, the assigned
1417 amount of memory). This allows scaling service resources neatly with
771de3f5 1418 the amount of RAM available on the system. Similarly, systemd-logind's
fcd30826
LP
1419 RuntimeDirectorySize= option now also optionally takes percentage
1420 values.
1421
1422 * In similar fashion TasksMax= takes percentage values now, too. The
1423 value is taken relative to the configured maximum number of processes
1424 on the system. The per-service task maximum has been changed to 15%
1425 using this functionality. (Effectively this is an increase of 512 →
1426 4915 for service units, given the kernel's default pid_max setting.)
1427
1428 * Calendar time specifications in .timer units now understand a ".."
1429 syntax for time ranges. Example: "4..7:10" may now be used for
1430 defining a timer that is triggered at 4:10am, 5:10am, 6:10am and
1431 7:10am every day.
1432
1433 * The InaccessableDirectories=, ReadOnlyDirectories= and
1434 ReadWriteDirectories= unit file settings have been renamed to
1435 InaccessablePaths=, ReadOnlyPaths= and ReadWritePaths= and may now be
1436 applied to all kinds of file nodes, and not just directories, with
1437 the exception of symlinks. Specifically these settings may now be
1438 used on block and character device nodes, UNIX sockets and FIFOS as
1439 well as regular files. The old names of these settings remain
1440 available for compatibility.
1441
1442 * systemd will now log about all service processes it kills forcibly
1443 (using SIGKILL) because they remained after the clean shutdown phase
1444 of the service completed. This should help identifying services that
1445 shut down uncleanly. Moreover if KillUserProcesses= is enabled in
1446 systemd-logind's configuration a similar log message is generated for
1447 processes killed at the end of each session due to this setting.
1448
1449 * systemd will now set the $JOURNAL_STREAM environment variable for all
1450 services whose stdout/stderr are connected to the Journal (which
1451 effectively means by default: all services). The variable contains
1452 the device and inode number of the file descriptor used for
1453 stdout/stderr. This may be used by invoked programs to detect whether
1454 their stdout/stderr is connected to the Journal, in which case they
1455 can switch over to direct Journal communication, thus being able to
1456 pass extended, structured metadata along with their log messages. As
1457 one example, this is now used by glib's logging primitives.
1458
1459 * When using systemd's default tmp.mount unit for /tmp, the mount point
1460 will now be established with the "nosuid" and "nodev" options. This
1461 avoids privilege escalation attacks that put traps and exploits into
1462 /tmp. However, this might cause problems if you e. g. put container
5cd118ba
MP
1463 images or overlays into /tmp; if you need this, override tmp.mount's
1464 "Options=" with a drop-in, or mount /tmp from /etc/fstab with your
1465 desired options.
1466
fcd30826
LP
1467 * systemd now supports the "memory" cgroup controller also on
1468 cgroupsv2.
1469
1470 * The systemd-cgtop tool now optionally takes a control group path as
1471 command line argument. If specified, the control group list shown is
1472 limited to subgroups of that group.
1473
1474 * The SystemCallFilter= unit file setting gained support for
1475 pre-defined, named system call filter sets. For example
1476 SystemCallFilter=@clock is now an effective way to make all clock
771de3f5 1477 changing-related system calls unavailable to a service. A number of
fcd30826
LP
1478 similar pre-defined groups are defined. Writing system call filters
1479 for system services is simplified substantially with this new
1480 concept. Accordingly, all of systemd's own, long-running services now
1481 enable system call filtering based on this, by default.
1482
1483 * A new service setting MemoryDenyWriteExecute= has been added, taking
1484 a boolean value. If turned on, a service may no longer create memory
1485 mappings that are writable and executable at the same time. This
1486 enhances security for services where this is enabled as it becomes
1487 harder to dynamically write and then execute memory in exploited
1488 service processes. This option has been enabled for all of systemd's
1489 own long-running services.
1490
1491 * A new RestrictRealtime= service setting has been added, taking a
1492 boolean argument. If set the service's processes may no longer
1493 acquire realtime scheduling. This improves security as realtime
1494 scheduling may otherwise be used to easily freeze the system.
1495
1496 * systemd-nspawn gained a new switch --notify-ready= taking a boolean
1497 value. This may be used for requesting that the system manager inside
1498 of the container reports start-up completion to nspawn which then
1499 propagates this notification further to the service manager
1500 supervising nspawn itself. A related option NotifyReady= in .nspawn
1501 files has been added too. This functionality allows ordering of the
1502 start-up of multiple containers using the usual systemd ordering
1503 primitives.
1504
1505 * machinectl gained a new command "stop" that is an alias for
1506 "terminate".
1507
1508 * systemd-resolved gained support for contacting DNS servers on
1509 link-local IPv6 addresses.
1510
1511 * If systemd-resolved receives the SIGUSR2 signal it will now flush all
1512 its caches. A method call for requesting the same operation has been
1513 added to the bus API too, and is made available via "systemd-resolve
1514 --flush-caches".
1515
771de3f5 1516 * systemd-resolve gained a new --status switch. If passed a brief
fcd30826
LP
1517 summary of the used DNS configuration with per-interface information
1518 is shown.
1519
1520 * resolved.conf gained a new Cache= boolean option, defaulting to
1521 on. If turned off local DNS caching is disabled. This comes with a
1522 performance penalty in particular when DNSSEC is enabled. Note that
771de3f5 1523 resolved disables its internal caching implicitly anyway, when the
fcd30826
LP
1524 configured DNS server is on a host-local IP address such as ::1 or
1525 127.0.0.1, thus automatically avoiding double local caching.
1526
1527 * systemd-resolved now listens on the local IP address 127.0.0.53:53
1528 for DNS requests. This improves compatibility with local programs
1529 that do not use the libc NSS or systemd-resolved's bus APIs for name
1530 resolution. This minimal DNS service is only available to local
1531 programs and does not implement the full DNS protocol, but enough to
1532 cover local DNS clients. A new, static resolv.conf file, listing just
1533 this DNS server is now shipped in /usr/lib/systemd/resolv.conf. It is
1534 now recommended to make /etc/resolv.conf a symlink to this file in
1535 order to route all DNS lookups to systemd-resolved, regardless if
1536 done via NSS, the bus API or raw DNS packets. Note that this local
1537 DNS service is not as fully featured as the libc NSS or
1538 systemd-resolved's bus APIs. For example, as unicast DNS cannot be
1539 used to deliver link-local address information (as this implies
1540 sending a local interface index along), LLMNR/mDNS support via this
1541 interface is severely restricted. It is thus strongly recommended for
1542 all applications to use the libc NSS API or native systemd-resolved
1543 bus API instead.
1544
1545 * systemd-networkd's bridge support learned a new setting
1546 VLANFiltering= for controlling VLAN filtering. Moreover a new section
1547 in .network files has been added for configuring VLAN bridging in
1548 more detail: VLAN=, EgressUntagged=, PVID= in [BridgeVLAN].
1549
1550 * systemd-networkd's IPv6 Router Advertisement code now makes use of
1551 the DNSSL and RDNSS options. This means IPv6 DNS configuration may
1552 now be acquired without relying on DHCPv6. Two new options
1553 UseDomains= and UseDNS= have been added to configure this behaviour.
1554
1555 * systemd-networkd's IPv6AcceptRouterAdvertisements= option has been
1556 renamed IPv6AcceptRA=, without altering its behaviour. The old
1557 setting name remains available for compatibility reasons.
1558
1559 * The systemd-networkd VTI/VTI6 tunneling support gained new options
1560 Key=, InputKey= and OutputKey=.
1561
1562 * systemd-networkd gained support for VRF ("Virtual Routing Function")
1563 interface configuration.
1564
1565 * "systemctl edit" may now be used to create new unit files by
1566 specifying the --force switch.
1567
1568 * sd-event gained a new function sd_event_get_iteration() for
1569 requesting the current iteration counter of the event loop. It starts
1570 at zero and is increased by one with each event loop iteration.
1571
43a569a1
ZJS
1572 * A new rpm macro %systemd_ordering is provided by the macros.systemd
1573 file. It can be used in lieu of %systemd_requires in packages which
1574 don't use any systemd functionality and are intended to be installed
1575 in minimal containers without systemd present. This macro provides
ce830873 1576 ordering dependencies to ensure that if the package is installed in
43a569a1
ZJS
1577 the same rpm transaction as systemd, systemd will be installed before
1578 the scriptlets for the package are executed, allowing unit presets
1579 to be handled.
1580
1581 New macros %_systemdgeneratordir and %_systemdusergeneratordir have
1582 been added to simplify packaging of generators.
1583
1584 * The os-release file gained VERSION_CODENAME field for the
1585 distribution nickname (e.g. VERSION_CODENAME=woody).
1586
1587 * New udev property UDEV_DISABLE_PERSISTENT_STORAGE_RULES_FLAG=1
1588 can be set to disable parsing of metadata and the creation
1589 of persistent symlinks for that device.
1590
0f1da52b
LP
1591 * The v230 change to tag framebuffer devices (/dev/fb*) with "uaccess"
1592 to make them available to logged-in users has been reverted.
1593
1594 * Much of the common code of the various systemd components is now
1595 built into an internal shared library libsystemd-shared-231.so
1596 (incorporating the systemd version number in the name, to be updated
1597 with future releases) that the components link to. This should
1598 decrease systemd footprint both in memory during runtime and on
1599 disk. Note that the shared library is not for public use, and is
1600 neither API not ABI stable, but is likely to change with every new
1ecbf32f
ZJS
1601 released update. Packagers need to make sure that binaries
1602 linking to libsystemd-shared.so are updated in step with the
1603 library.
43a569a1 1604
fcd30826
LP
1605 * Configuration for "mkosi" is now part of the systemd
1606 repository. mkosi is a tool to easily build legacy-free OS images,
1607 and is available on github: https://github.com/systemd/mkosi. If
1608 "mkosi" is invoked in the build tree a new raw OS image is generated
1609 incorporating the systemd sources currently being worked on and a
1610 clean, fresh distribution installation. The generated OS image may be
ce830873 1611 booted up with "systemd-nspawn -b -i", qemu-kvm or on any physical
fcd30826
LP
1612 UEFI PC. This functionality is particularly useful to easily test
1613 local changes made to systemd in a pristine, defined environment. See
1614 HACKING for details.
ceeddf79 1615
4ffe2479
ZJS
1616 * configure learned the --with-support-url= option to specify the
1617 distribution's bugtracker.
1618
38b383d9
LP
1619 Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alessandro Puccetti, Alessio Igor
1620 Bogani, Alexander Kuleshov, Alexander Kurtz, Alex Gaynor, Andika
1621 Triwidada, Andreas Pokorny, Andreas Rammhold, Andrew Jeddeloh, Ansgar
1622 Burchardt, Atrotors, Benjamin Drung, Brian Boylston, Christian Hesse,
1623 Christian Rebischke, Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David
1624 Herrmann, David Michael, Djalal Harouni, Douglas Christman, Elias
1625 Probst, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Federico Mena Quintero, Felipe Sateler,
1626 Franck Bui, Harald Hoyer, Ian Lee, Ivan Shapovalov, Jakub Wilk, Jan
1627 Janssen, Jean-Sébastien Bour, John Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jouke
1628 Witteveen, Kai Ruhnau, kpengboy, Kyle Walker, Lénaïc Huard, Lennart
1629 Poettering, Luca Bruno, Lukas Lösche, Lukáš Nykrýn, mahkoh, Marcel
1630 Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Marty Plummer, Matthieu Codron, Max Prokhorov,
1631 Michael Biebl, Michael Karcher, Michael Olbrich, Michał Bartoszkiewicz,
1632 Michal Sekletar, Michal Soltys, Minkyung, Muhammet Kara, mulkieran,
1633 Otto Wallenius, Pablo Lezaeta Reyes, Peter Hutterer, Ronny Chevalier,
1634 Rusty Bird, Stef Walter, Susant Sahani, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas
771de3f5
ZJS
1635 Haller, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tobias Jungel, Tom Gundersen, Tom Yan,
1636 Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, Valentin Vidić, Viktar Vaŭčkievič,
38b383d9 1637 WaLyong Cho, Weng Xuetian, Werner Fink, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
5cd118ba 1638
38b383d9 1639 — Berlin, 2016-07-25
5cd118ba 1640
46e40fab 1641CHANGES WITH 230:
7f6e8043 1642
61ecb465
LP
1643 * DNSSEC is now turned on by default in systemd-resolved (in
1644 "allow-downgrade" mode), but may be turned off during compile time by
1645 passing "--with-default-dnssec=no" to "configure" (and of course,
1646 during runtime with DNSSEC= in resolved.conf). We recommend
1647 downstreams to leave this on at least during development cycles and
1648 report any issues with the DNSSEC logic upstream. We are very
1649 interested in collecting feedback about the DNSSEC validator and its
1650 limitations in the wild. Note however, that DNSSEC support is
1651 probably nothing downstreams should turn on in stable distros just
96d49011 1652 yet, as it might create incompatibilities with a few DNS servers and
61ecb465
LP
1653 networks. We tried hard to make sure we downgrade to non-DNSSEC mode
1654 automatically whenever we detect such incompatible setups, but there
1655 might be systems we do not cover yet. Hence: please help us testing
1656 the DNSSEC code, leave this on where you can, report back, but then
1657 again don't consider turning this on in your stable, LTS or
e40a326c
LP
1658 production release just yet. (Note that you have to enable
1659 nss-resolve in /etc/nsswitch.conf, to actually use systemd-resolved
1660 and its DNSSEC mode for host name resolution from local
1661 applications.)
61ecb465 1662
96515dbf 1663 * systemd-resolve conveniently resolves DANE records with the --tlsa
e40a326c 1664 option and OPENPGPKEY records with the --openpgp option. It also
e75690c3 1665 supports dumping raw DNS record data via the new --raw= switch.
96515dbf 1666
97e5530c
ZJS
1667 * systemd-logind will now by default terminate user processes that are
1668 part of the user session scope unit (session-XX.scope) when the user
977f2bea 1669 logs out. This behavior is controlled by the KillUserProcesses=
e40a326c
LP
1670 setting in logind.conf, and the previous default of "no" is now
1671 changed to "yes". This means that user sessions will be properly
1672 cleaned up after, but additional steps are necessary to allow
1673 intentionally long-running processes to survive logout.
97e5530c
ZJS
1674
1675 While the user is logged in at least once, user@.service is running,
1676 and any service that should survive the end of any individual login
1677 session can be started at a user service or scope using systemd-run.
e40a326c 1678 systemd-run(1) man page has been extended with an example which shows
8951eaec 1679 how to run screen in a scope unit underneath user@.service. The same
e40a326c 1680 command works for tmux.
97e5530c
ZJS
1681
1682 After the user logs out of all sessions, user@.service will be
1683 terminated too, by default, unless the user has "lingering" enabled.
1684 To effectively allow users to run long-term tasks even if they are
152199f2
ZJS
1685 logged out, lingering must be enabled for them. See loginctl(1) for
1686 details. The default polkit policy was modified to allow users to
1687 set lingering for themselves without authentication.
7f6e8043 1688
95365a57 1689 Previous defaults can be restored at compile time by the
e40a326c 1690 --without-kill-user-processes option to "configure".
7f6e8043 1691
e75690c3
ZJS
1692 * systemd-logind gained new configuration settings SessionsMax= and
1693 InhibitorsMax=, both with a default of 8192. It will not register new
188d3082 1694 user sessions or inhibitors above this limit.
e75690c3
ZJS
1695
1696 * systemd-logind will now reload configuration on SIGHUP.
1697
96515dbf 1698 * The unified cgroup hierarchy added in Linux 4.5 is now supported.
e40a326c 1699 Use systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1 on the kernel command line to
25b0e6cb
LP
1700 enable. Also, support for the "io" cgroup controller in the unified
1701 hierarchy has been added, so that the "memory", "pids" and "io" are
1702 now the controllers that are supported on the unified hierarchy.
e40a326c 1703
96515dbf
ZJS
1704 WARNING: it is not possible to use previous systemd versions with
1705 systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1 and the new kernel. Therefore it
1706 is necessary to also update systemd in the initramfs if using the
e40a326c 1707 unified hierarchy. An updated SELinux policy is also required.
96515dbf 1708
e40a326c
LP
1709 * LLDP support has been extended, and both passive (receive-only) and
1710 active (sender) modes are supported. Passive mode ("routers-only") is
8951eaec
ZJS
1711 enabled by default in systemd-networkd. Active LLDP mode is enabled
1712 by default for containers on the internal network. The "networkctl
e40a326c
LP
1713 lldp" command may be used to list information gathered. "networkctl
1714 status" will also show basic LLDP information on connected peers now.
96515dbf 1715
e40a326c
LP
1716 * The IAID and DUID unique identifier sent in DHCP requests may now be
1717 configured for the system and each .network file managed by
e75690c3
ZJS
1718 systemd-networkd using the DUIDType=, DUIDRawData=, IAID= options.
1719
1720 * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring proxy ARP support for
1721 each interface, via the ProxyArp= setting in .network files. It also
1722 gained support for configuring the multicast querier feature of
1723 bridge devices, via the new MulticastQuerier= setting in .netdev
1724 files. Similarly, snooping on the IGMP traffic can be controlled
1725 via the new setting MulticastSnooping=.
1726
1727 A new setting PreferredLifetime= has been added for addresses
1728 configured in .network file to configure the lifetime intended for an
1729 address.
1730
1731 The systemd-networkd DHCP server gained the option EmitRouter=, which
1732 defaults to yes, to configure whether the DHCP Option 3 (Router)
1733 should be emitted.
96515dbf 1734
e40a326c 1735 * The testing tool /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-activate is renamed to
97e5530c
ZJS
1736 systemd-socket-activate and installed into /usr/bin. It is now fully
1737 supported.
1738
e40a326c
LP
1739 * systemd-journald now uses separate threads to flush changes to disk
1740 when closing journal files, thus reducing impact of slow disk I/O on
1741 logging performance.
96515dbf 1742
e75690c3
ZJS
1743 * The sd-journal API gained two new calls
1744 sd_journal_open_directory_fd() and sd_journal_open_files_fd() which
1745 can be used to open journal files using file descriptors instead of
1746 file or directory paths. sd_journal_open_container() has been
1747 deprecated, sd_journal_open_directory_fd() should be used instead
1748 with the flag SD_JOURNAL_OS_ROOT.
1749
1750 * journalctl learned a new output mode "-o short-unix" that outputs log
1751 lines prefixed by their UNIX time (i.e. seconds since Jan 1st, 1970
1752 UTC). It also gained support for a new --no-hostname setting to
1753 suppress the hostname column in the family of "short" output modes.
1754
e40a326c
LP
1755 * systemd-ask-password now optionally skips printing of the password to
1756 stdout with --no-output which can be useful in scripts.
96515dbf
ZJS
1757
1758 * Framebuffer devices (/dev/fb*) and 3D printers and scanners
1759 (devices tagged with ID_MAKER_TOOL) are now tagged with
1760 "uaccess" and are available to logged in users.
1761
e75690c3 1762 * The DeviceAllow= unit setting now supports specifiers (with "%").
e40a326c
LP
1763
1764 * "systemctl show" gained a new --value switch, which allows print a
1765 only the contents of a specific unit property, without also printing
8951eaec
ZJS
1766 the property's name. Similar support was added to "show*" verbs
1767 of loginctl and machinectl that output "key=value" lists.
e40a326c 1768
e75690c3
ZJS
1769 * A new unit type "generated" was added for files dynamically generated
1770 by generator tools. Similarly, a new unit type "transient" is used
1771 for unit files created using the runtime API. "systemctl enable" will
1772 refuse to operate on such files.
1773
e40a326c
LP
1774 * A new command "systemctl revert" has been added that may be used to
1775 revert to the vendor version of a unit file, in case local changes
1776 have been made by adding drop-ins or overriding the unit file.
1777
1778 * "machinectl clean" gained a new verb to automatically remove all or
1779 just hidden container images.
1780
e40a326c
LP
1781 * systemd-tmpfiles gained support for a new line type "e" for emptying
1782 directories, if they exist, without creating them if they don't.
1783
e40a326c
LP
1784 * systemd-nspawn gained support for automatically patching the UID/GIDs
1785 of the owners and the ACLs of all files and directories in a
1786 container tree to match the UID/GID user namespacing range selected
1787 for the container invocation. This mode is enabled via the new
24597ee0
ZJS
1788 --private-users-chown switch. It also gained support for
1789 automatically choosing a free, previously unused UID/GID range when
1790 starting a container, via the new --private-users=pick setting (which
1791 implies --private-users-chown). Together, these options for the first
1792 time make user namespacing for nspawn containers fully automatic and
1793 thus deployable. The systemd-nspawn@.service template unit file has
1794 been changed to use this functionality by default.
e40a326c 1795
25b0e6cb
LP
1796 * systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-zone= switch, that allows
1797 creating ad-hoc virtual Ethernet links between multiple containers,
1798 that only exist as long as at least one container referencing them is
1799 running. This allows easy connecting of multiple containers with a
1800 common link that implements an Ethernet broadcast domain. Each of
1801 these network "zones" may be named relatively freely by the user, and
1802 may be referenced by any number of containers, but each container may
1803 only reference one of these "zones". On the lower level, this is
1804 implemented by an automatically managed bridge network interface for
1805 each zone, that is created when the first container referencing its
1806 zone is created and removed when the last one referencing its zone
1807 terminates.
1808
e40a326c 1809 * The default start timeout may now be configured on the kernel command
8951eaec
ZJS
1810 line via systemd.default_timeout_start_sec=. It was already
1811 configurable via the DefaultTimeoutStartSec= option in
1812 /etc/systemd/system.conf.
e40a326c 1813
030bd839 1814 * Socket units gained a new TriggerLimitIntervalSec= and
e40a326c
LP
1815 TriggerLimitBurst= setting to configure a limit on the activation
1816 rate of the socket unit.
1817
1818 * The LimitNICE= setting now optionally takes normal UNIX nice values
1819 in addition to the raw integer limit value. If the specified
1820 parameter is prefixed with "+" or "-" and is in the range -20..19 the
1821 value is understood as UNIX nice value. If not prefixed like this it
1822 is understood as raw RLIMIT_NICE limit.
1823
999a43f8
LP
1824 * Note that the effect of the PrivateDevices= unit file setting changed
1825 slightly with this release: the per-device /dev file system will be
1826 mounted read-only from this version on, and will have "noexec"
188d3082 1827 set. This (minor) change of behavior might cause some (exceptional)
999a43f8
LP
1828 legacy software to break, when PrivateDevices=yes is set for its
1829 service. Please leave PrivateDevices= off if you run into problems
1830 with this.
1831
e75690c3
ZJS
1832 * systemd-bootchart has been split out to a separate repository:
1833 https://github.com/systemd/systemd-bootchart
1834
1835 * systemd-bus-proxyd has been removed, as kdbus is unlikely to still be
1836 merged into the kernel in its current form.
1837
1838 * The compatibility libraries libsystemd-daemon.so,
1839 libsystemd-journal.so, libsystemd-id128.so, and libsystemd-login.so
1840 which have been deprecated since systemd-209 have been removed along
1841 with the corresponding pkg-config files. All symbols provided by
1842 those libraries are provided by libsystemd.so.
1843
1844 * The Capabilities= unit file setting has been removed (it is ignored
1845 for backwards compatibility). AmbientCapabilities= and
1846 CapabilityBoundingSet= should be used instead.
1847
4f9020fa
DR
1848 * A new special target has been added, initrd-root-device.target,
1849 which creates a synchronization point for dependencies of the root
1850 device in early userspace. Initramfs builders must ensure that this
1851 target is now included in early userspace.
1852
e75690c3
ZJS
1853 Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alexander Kuleshov, Alexander Shopov,
1854 Alex Crawford, Andre Klärner, Andrew Eikum, Beniamino Galvani, Benjamin
1855 Robin, Biao Lu, Bjørnar Ness, Calvin Owens, Christian Hesse, Clemens
1856 Gruber, Colin Guthrie, Daniel Drake, Daniele Medri, Daniel J Walsh,
1857 Daniel Mack, Dan Nicholson, daurnimator, David Herrmann, David
1858 R. Hedges, Elias Probst, Emmanuel Gil Peyrot, EMOziko, Evgeny
1859 Vereshchagin, Federico, Felipe Sateler, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck
1860 Bui, frankheckenbach, gdamjan, Georgia Brikis, Harald Hoyer, Hendrik
77ff6022
CG
1861 Brueckner, Hristo Venev, Iago López Galeiras, Ian Kelling, Ismo
1862 Puustinen, Jakub Wilk, Jaroslav Škarvada, Jeff Huang, Joel Holdsworth,
e75690c3
ZJS
1863 John Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jonathan Boulle, kayrus, Klearchos
1864 Chaloulos, Kyle Russell, Lars Uebernickel, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir
1865 Rintel, Lukáš Nykrýn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann, Martin Pitt,
77ff6022
CG
1866 Michael Biebl, michaelolbrich, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Michal Koutný,
1867 Michal Sekletar, Mike Frysinger, Mike Gilbert, Mingcong Bai, Ming Lin,
1868 mulkieran, muzena, Nalin Dahyabhai, Naohiro Aota, Nathan McSween,
e75690c3
ZJS
1869 Nicolas Braud-Santoni, Patrik Flykt, Peter Hutterer, Peter Mattern,
1870 Petr Lautrbach, Petros Angelatos, Piotr Drąg, Rabin Vincent, Robert
1871 Węcławski, Ronny Chevalier, Samuel Tardieu, Stefan Saraev, Stefan
1872 Schallenberg aka nafets227, Steven Siloti, Susant Sahani, Sylvain
1873 Plantefève, Taylor Smock, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas Haller,
1874 Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tobias Klauser, Tom Gundersen, topimiettinen,
46e40fab
ZJS
1875 Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Uwe Kleine-König, Victor Toso,
1876 Vinay Kulkarni, Vito Caputo, Vittorio G (VittGam), Vladimir Panteleev,
1877 Wieland Hoffmann, Wouter Verhelst, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew
1878 Jędrzejewski-Szmek
e40a326c 1879
46e40fab 1880 — Fairfax, 2016-05-21
96515dbf 1881
61f32bff
MP
1882CHANGES WITH 229:
1883
d5f8b295
LP
1884 * The systemd-resolved DNS resolver service has gained a substantial
1885 set of new features, most prominently it may now act as a DNSSEC
1886 validating stub resolver. DNSSEC mode is currently turned off by
ed5f8840
ZJS
1887 default, but is expected to be turned on by default in one of the
1888 next releases. For now, we invite everybody to test the DNSSEC logic
1889 by setting DNSSEC=allow-downgrade in /etc/systemd/resolved.conf. The
1890 service also gained a full set of D-Bus interfaces, including calls
1891 to configure DNS and DNSSEC settings per link (for use by external
1892 network management software). systemd-resolved and systemd-networkd
1893 now distinguish between "search" and "routing" domains. The former
1894 are used to qualify single-label names, the latter are used purely
1895 for routing lookups within certain domains to specific links.
1896 resolved now also synthesizes RRs for all entries from /etc/hosts.
d5f8b295
LP
1897
1898 * The systemd-resolve tool (which is a client utility for
ed5f8840
ZJS
1899 systemd-resolved) has been improved considerably and is now fully
1900 supported and documented. Hence it has moved from /usr/lib/systemd to
1901 /usr/bin.
d5f8b295
LP
1902
1903 * /dev/disk/by-path/ symlink support has been (re-)added for virtio
1904 devices.
1905
a7c723c0
LP
1906 * The coredump collection logic has been reworked: when a coredump is
1907 collected it is now written to disk, compressed and processed
1908 (including stacktrace extraction) from a new instantiated service
1909 systemd-coredump@.service, instead of directly from the
1910 /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern hook we provide. This is beneficial as
1911 processing large coredumps can take up a substantial amount of
1912 resources and time, and this previously happened entirely outside of
1913 systemd's service supervision. With the new logic the core_pattern
1914 hook only does minimal metadata collection before passing off control
1915 to the new instantiated service, which is configured with a time
1916 limit, a nice level and other settings to minimize negative impact on
1917 the rest of the system. Also note that the new logic will honour the
1918 RLIMIT_CORE setting of the crashed process, which now allows users
1919 and processes to turn off coredumping for their processes by setting
1920 this limit.
1921
1922 * The RLIMIT_CORE resource limit now defaults to "unlimited" for PID 1
1923 and all forked processes by default. Previously, PID 1 would leave
1924 the setting at "0" for all processes, as set by the kernel. Note that
1925 the resource limit traditionally has no effect on the generated
1926 coredumps on the system if the /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern hook
1927 logic is used. Since the limit is now honoured (see above) its
1928 default has been changed so that the coredumping logic is enabled by
1929 default for all processes, while allowing specific opt-out.
1930
1931 * When the stacktrace is extracted from processes of system users, this
1932 is now done as "systemd-coredump" user, in order to sandbox this
1933 potentially security sensitive parsing operation. (Note that when
1934 processing coredumps of normal users this is done under the user ID
1935 of process that crashed, as before.) Packagers should take notice
1936 that it is now necessary to create the "systemd-coredump" system user
1937 and group at package installation time.
1938
d5f8b295
LP
1939 * The systemd-activate socket activation testing tool gained support
1940 for SOCK_DGRAM and SOCK_SEQPACKET sockets using the new --datagram
1941 and --seqpacket switches. It also has been extended to support both
1942 new-style and inetd-style file descriptor passing. Use the new
1943 --inetd switch to request inetd-style file descriptor passing.
1944
8968aea0
MP
1945 * Most systemd tools now honor a new $SYSTEMD_COLORS environment
1946 variable, which takes a boolean value. If set to false, ANSI color
d5f8b295
LP
1947 output is disabled in the tools even when run on a terminal that
1948 supports it.
1949
1950 * The VXLAN support in networkd now supports two new settings
1951 DestinationPort= and PortRange=.
1952
1953 * A new systemd.machine_id= kernel command line switch has been added,
1954 that may be used to set the machine ID in /etc/machine-id if it is
1955 not initialized yet. This command line option has no effect if the
1956 file is already initialized.
1957
1958 * systemd-nspawn gained a new --as-pid2 switch that invokes any
1959 specified command line as PID 2 rather than PID 1 in the
ed5f8840
ZJS
1960 container. In this mode PID 1 is a minimal stub init process that
1961 implements the special POSIX and Linux semantics of PID 1 regarding
1962 signal and child process management. Note that this stub init process
1963 is implemented in nspawn itself and requires no support from the
1964 container image. This new logic is useful to support running
1965 arbitrary commands in the container, as normal processes are
d5f8b295
LP
1966 generally not prepared to run as PID 1.
1967
1968 * systemd-nspawn gained a new --chdir= switch for setting the current
1969 working directory for the process started in the container.
1970
ed5f8840
ZJS
1971 * "journalctl /dev/sda" will now output all kernel log messages for
1972 specified device from the current boot, in addition to all devices
1973 that are parents of it. This should make log output about devices
1974 pretty useful, as long as kernel drivers attach enough metadata to
1975 the log messages. (The usual SATA drivers do.)
d5f8b295
LP
1976
1977 * The sd-journal API gained two new calls
1978 sd_journal_has_runtime_files() and sd_journal_has_persistent_files()
1979 that report whether log data from /run or /var has been found.
1980
1981 * journalctl gained a new switch "--fields" that prints all journal
1982 record field names currently in use in the journal. This is backed
1983 by two new sd-journal API calls sd_journal_enumerate_fields() and
1984 sd_journal_restart_fields().
1985
1986 * Most configurable timeouts in systemd now expect an argument of
8968aea0
MP
1987 "infinity" to turn them off, instead of "0" as before. The semantics
1988 from now on is that a timeout of "0" means "now", and "infinity"
1989 means "never". To maintain backwards compatibility, "0" continues to
1990 turn off previously existing timeout settings.
d5f8b295
LP
1991
1992 * "systemctl reload-or-try-restart" has been renamed to "systemctl
8968aea0
MP
1993 try-reload-or-restart" to clarify what it actually does: the "try"
1994 logic applies to both reloading and restarting, not just restarting.
1995 The old name continues to be accepted for compatibility.
1996
1997 * On boot-up, when PID 1 detects that the system clock is behind the
1998 release date of the systemd version in use, the clock is now set
1999 to the latter. Previously, this was already done in timesyncd, in order
d5f8b295
LP
2000 to avoid running with clocks set to the various clock epochs such as
2001 1902, 1938 or 1970. With this change the logic is now done in PID 1
2002 in addition to timesyncd during early boot-up, so that it is enforced
2003 before the first process is spawned by systemd. Note that the logic
2004 in timesyncd remains, as it is more comprehensive and ensures
ed5f8840 2005 clock monotonicity by maintaining a persistent timestamp file in
d5f8b295
LP
2006 /var. Since /var is generally not available in earliest boot or the
2007 initrd, this part of the logic remains in timesyncd, and is not done
2008 by PID 1.
2009
50f48ad3
DM
2010 * Support for tweaking details in net_cls.class_id through the
2011 NetClass= configuration directive has been removed, as the kernel
2012 people have decided to deprecate that controller in cgroup v2.
2013 Userspace tools such as nftables are moving over to setting rules
2014 that are specific to the full cgroup path of a task, which obsoletes
2015 these controllers anyway. The NetClass= directive is kept around for
2016 legacy compatibility reasons. For a more in-depth description of the
2017 kernel change, please refer to the respective upstream commit:
2018
2019 https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit/?id=bd1060a1d671
2020
d5f8b295 2021 * A new service setting RuntimeMaxSec= has been added that may be used
8968aea0 2022 to specify a maximum runtime for a service. If the timeout is hit, the
d5f8b295
LP
2023 service is terminated and put into a failure state.
2024
8968aea0
MP
2025 * A new service setting AmbientCapabilities= has been added. It allows
2026 configuration of additional Linux process capabilities that are
2027 passed to the activated processes. This is only available on very
d5f8b295
LP
2028 recent kernels.
2029
2030 * The process resource limit settings in service units may now be used
2031 to configure hard and soft limits individually.
2032
8968aea0 2033 * The various libsystemd APIs such as sd-bus or sd-event now publicly
ed5f8840
ZJS
2034 expose support for gcc's __attribute__((cleanup())) C extension.
2035 Specifically, for many object destructor functions alternative
2036 versions have been added that have names suffixed with "p" and take a
2037 pointer to a pointer to the object to destroy, instead of just a
2038 pointer to the object itself. This is useful because these destructor
2039 functions may be used directly as parameters to the cleanup
2040 construct. Internally, systemd has been a heavy user of this GCC
2041 extension for a long time, and with this change similar support is
2042 now available to consumers of the library outside of systemd. Note
8968aea0 2043 that by using this extension in your sources compatibility with old
ed5f8840
ZJS
2044 and strictly ANSI compatible C compilers is lost. However, all gcc or
2045 LLVM versions of recent years support this extension.
d5f8b295
LP
2046
2047 * Timer units gained support for a new setting RandomizedDelaySec= that
8968aea0
MP
2048 allows configuring some additional randomized delay to the configured
2049 time. This is useful to spread out timer events to avoid load peaks in
2050 clusters or larger setups.
d5f8b295
LP
2051
2052 * Calendar time specifications now support sub-second accuracy.
2053
2054 * Socket units now support listening on SCTP and UDP-lite protocol
2055 sockets.
2056
2057 * The sd-event API now comes with a full set of man pages.
2058
2059 * Older versions of systemd contained experimental support for
2060 compressing journal files and coredumps with the LZ4 compressor that
2061 was not compatible with the lz4 binary (due to API limitations of the
2062 lz4 library). This support has been removed; only support for files
2063 compatible with the lz4 binary remains. This LZ4 logic is now
2064 officially supported and no longer considered experimental.
2065
2066 * The dkr image import logic has been removed again from importd. dkr's
2067 micro-services focus doesn't fit into the machine image focus of
2068 importd, and quickly got out of date with the upstream dkr API.
2069
2070 * Creation of the /run/lock/lockdev/ directory was dropped from
2071 tmpfiles.d/legacy.conf. Better locking mechanisms like flock() have
61f32bff
MP
2072 been available for many years. If you still need this, you need to
2073 create your own tmpfiles.d config file with:
d5f8b295
LP
2074
2075 d /run/lock/lockdev 0775 root lock -
61f32bff 2076
3545ab35
LP
2077 Contributions from: Abdo Roig-Maranges, Alban Crequy, Aleksander
2078 Adamowski, Alexander Kuleshov, Andreas Pokorny, Andrei Borzenkov,
2079 Andrew Wilcox, Arthur Clement, Beniamino Galvani, Casey Schaufler,
2080 Chris Atkinson, Chris Mayo, Christian Hesse, Damjan Georgievski, Dan
2081 Dedrick, Daniele Medri, Daniel J Walsh, Daniel Korostil, Daniel Mack,
2082 David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov, Dominik Hannen, Douglas Christman,
2083 Evgeny Vereshchagin, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck Bui, Gabor Kelemen,
2084 Harald Hoyer, Hayden Walles, Helmut Grohne, Henrik Kaare Poulsen,
2085 Hristo Venev, Hui Wang, Indrajit Raychaudhuri, Ismo Puustinen, Jakub
2086 Wilk, Jan Alexander Steffens (heftig), Jan Engelhardt, Jan Synacek,
2087 Joost Bremmer, Jorgen Schaefer, Karel Zak, Klearchos Chaloulos,
2088 lc85446, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel
2089 Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michael Scherer,
2090 Michał Górny, Michal Sekletar, Nicolas Cornu, Nicolas Iooss, Nils
2091 Carlson, nmartensen, nnz1024, Patrick Ohly, Peter Hutterer, Phillip Sz,
2092 Ronny Chevalier, Samu Kallio, Shawn Landden, Stef Walter, Susant
2093 Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Tadej Janež, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
2094 Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Vito
2095 Caputo, WaLyong Cho, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
2096
ccddd104 2097 — Berlin, 2016-02-11
61f32bff 2098
a11c7ea5
LP
2099CHANGES WITH 228:
2100
a11c7ea5
LP
2101 * A number of properties previously only settable in unit
2102 files are now also available as properties to set when
2103 creating transient units programmatically via the bus, as it
2104 is exposed with systemd-run's --property=
2105 setting. Specifically, these are: SyslogIdentifier=,
2106 SyslogLevelPrefix=, TimerSlackNSec=, OOMScoreAdjust=,
2107 EnvironmentFile=, ReadWriteDirectories=,
2108 ReadOnlyDirectories=, InaccessibleDirectories=,
2109 ProtectSystem=, ProtectHome=, RuntimeDirectory=.
2110
28c85daf
LP
2111 * When creating transient services via the bus API it is now
2112 possible to pass in a set of file descriptors to use as
2113 STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR for the invoked process.
a11c7ea5 2114
f1f8a5a5
LP
2115 * Slice units may now be created transiently via the bus APIs,
2116 similar to the way service and scope units may already be
2117 created transiently.
2118
a11c7ea5
LP
2119 * Wherever systemd expects a calendar timestamp specification
2120 (like in journalctl's --since= and --until= switches) UTC
2121 timestamps are now supported. Timestamps suffixed with "UTC"
2122 are now considered to be in Universal Time Coordinated
2123 instead of the local timezone. Also, timestamps may now
815bb5bd 2124 optionally be specified with sub-second accuracy. Both of
a11c7ea5
LP
2125 these additions also apply to recurring calendar event
2126 specification, such as OnCalendar= in timer units.
2127
28c85daf
LP
2128 * journalctl gained a new "--sync" switch that asks the
2129 journal daemon to write all so far unwritten log messages to
2130 disk and sync the files, before returning.
2131
a11c7ea5
LP
2132 * systemd-tmpfiles learned two new line types "q" and "Q" that
2133 operate like "v", but also set up a basic btrfs quota
2134 hierarchy when used on a btrfs file system with quota
2135 enabled.
2136
f1f8a5a5
LP
2137 * tmpfiles' "v", "q" and "Q" will now create a plain directory
2138 instead of a subvolume (even on a btrfs file system) if the
2139 root directory is a plain directory, and not a
2140 subvolume. This should simplify things with certain chroot()
2141 environments which are not aware of the concept of btrfs
2142 subvolumes.
2143
a11c7ea5
LP
2144 * systemd-detect-virt gained a new --chroot switch to detect
2145 whether execution takes place in a chroot() environment.
2146
28c85daf 2147 * CPUAffinity= now takes CPU index ranges in addition to
a11c7ea5
LP
2148 individual indexes.
2149
28c85daf
LP
2150 * The various memory-related resource limit settings (such as
2151 LimitAS=) now understand the usual K, M, G, ... suffixes to
2152 the base of 1024 (IEC). Similar, the time-related resource
2153 limit settings understand the usual min, h, day, ...
2154 suffixes now.
2155
f1f8a5a5
LP
2156 * There's a new system.conf setting DefaultTasksMax= to
2157 control the default TasksMax= setting for services and
2158 scopes running on the system. (TasksMax= is the primary
2159 setting that exposes the "pids" cgroup controller on systemd
2160 and was introduced in the previous systemd release.) The
2161 setting now defaults to 512, which means services that are
2162 not explicitly configured otherwise will only be able to
2163 create 512 processes or threads at maximum, from this
2164 version on. Note that this means that thread- or
2165 process-heavy services might need to be reconfigured to set
2166 TasksMax= to a higher value. It is sufficient to set
2167 TasksMax= in these specific unit files to a higher value, or
2168 even "infinity". Similar, there's now a logind.conf setting
2169 UserTasksMax= that defaults to 4096 and limits the total
2170 number of processes or tasks each user may own
2171 concurrently. nspawn containers also have the TasksMax=
2172 value set by default now, to 8192. Note that all of this
2173 only has an effect if the "pids" cgroup controller is
2174 enabled in the kernel. The general benefit of these changes
2175 should be a more robust and safer system, that provides a
2176 certain amount of per-service fork() bomb protection.
2177
28c85daf
LP
2178 * systemd-nspawn gained the new --network-veth-extra= switch
2179 to define additional and arbitrarily-named virtual Ethernet
2180 links between the host and the container.
2181
2182 * A new service execution setting PassEnvironment= has been
2183 added that allows importing select environment variables
2184 from PID1's environment block into the environment block of
2185 the service.
2186
ddb4b0d3 2187 * Timer units gained support for a new RemainAfterElapse=
595bfe7d 2188 setting which takes a boolean argument. It defaults to on,
ddb4b0d3
LP
2189 exposing behaviour unchanged to previous releases. If set to
2190 off, timer units are unloaded after they elapsed if they
2191 cannot elapse again. This is particularly useful for
2192 transient timer units, which shall not stay around longer
2193 than until they first elapse.
2194
a11c7ea5 2195 * systemd will now bump the net.unix.max_dgram_qlen to 512 by
28c85daf
LP
2196 default now (the kernel default is 16). This is beneficial
2197 for avoiding blocking on AF_UNIX/SOCK_DGRAM sockets since it
a11c7ea5
LP
2198 allows substantially larger numbers of queued
2199 datagrams. This should increase the capability of systemd to
2200 parallelize boot-up, as logging and sd_notify() are unlikely
2201 to stall execution anymore. If you need to change the value
2202 from the new defaults, use the usual sysctl.d/ snippets.
2203
28c85daf
LP
2204 * The compression framing format used by the journal or
2205 coredump processing has changed to be in line with what the
2206 official LZ4 tools generate. LZ4 compression support in
2207 systemd was considered unsupported previously, as the format
2208 was not compatible with the normal tools. With this release
2209 this has changed now, and it is hence safe for downstream
2210 distributions to turn it on. While not compressing as well
815bb5bd 2211 as the XZ, LZ4 is substantially faster, which makes
28c85daf
LP
2212 it a good default choice for the compression logic in the
2213 journal and in coredump handling.
a11c7ea5 2214
28c85daf
LP
2215 * Any reference to /etc/mtab has been dropped from
2216 systemd. The file has been obsolete since a while, but
2217 systemd refused to work on systems where it was incorrectly
815bb5bd 2218 set up (it should be a symlink or non-existent). Please make
28c85daf
LP
2219 sure to update to util-linux 2.27.1 or newer in conjunction
2220 with this systemd release, which also drops any reference to
2221 /etc/mtab. If you maintain a distribution make sure that no
2222 software you package still references it, as this is a
2223 likely source of bugs. There's also a glibc bug pending,
2224 asking for removal of any reference to this obsolete file:
2225
2226 https://sourceware.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=19108
a11c7ea5 2227
d5bd92bb
LP
2228 Note that only util-linux versions built with
2229 --enable-libmount-force-mountinfo are supported.
2230
a11c7ea5
LP
2231 * Support for the ".snapshot" unit type has been removed. This
2232 feature turned out to be little useful and little used, and
2233 has now been removed from the core and from systemctl.
2234
b9e2f7eb
LP
2235 * The dependency types RequiresOverridable= and
2236 RequisiteOverridable= have been removed from systemd. They
2237 have been used only very sparingly to our knowledge and
2238 other options that provide a similar effect (such as
2239 systemctl --mode=ignore-dependencies) are much more useful
2240 and commonly used. Moreover, they were only half-way
2241 implemented as the option to control behaviour regarding
2242 these dependencies was never added to systemctl. By removing
2243 these dependency types the execution engine becomes a bit
2244 simpler. Unit files that use these dependencies should be
2245 changed to use the non-Overridable dependency types
2246 instead. In fact, when parsing unit files with these
2247 options, that's what systemd will automatically convert them
2248 too, but it will also warn, asking users to fix the unit
2249 files accordingly. Removal of these dependency types should
2250 only affect a negligible number of unit files in the wild.
2251
2252 * Behaviour of networkd's IPForward= option changed
2253 (again). It will no longer maintain a per-interface setting,
2254 but propagate one way from interfaces where this is enabled
2255 to the global kernel setting. The global setting will be
2256 enabled when requested by a network that is set up, but
2257 never be disabled again. This change was made to make sure
2258 IPv4 and IPv6 behaviour regarding packet forwarding is
2259 similar (as the Linux IPv6 stack does not support
2260 per-interface control of this setting) and to minimize
2261 surprises.
2262
28c85daf
LP
2263 * In unit files the behaviour of %u, %U, %h, %s has
2264 changed. These specifiers will now unconditionally resolve
2265 to the various user database fields of the user that the
2266 systemd instance is running as, instead of the user
2267 configured in the specific unit via User=. Note that this
2268 effectively doesn't change much, as resolving of these
2269 specifiers was already turned off in the --system instance
2270 of systemd, as we cannot do NSS lookups from PID 1. In the
2271 --user instance of systemd these specifiers where correctly
2272 resolved, but hardly made any sense, since the user instance
2273 lacks privileges to do user switches anyway, and User= is
ce830873 2274 hence useless. Moreover, even in the --user instance of
28c85daf
LP
2275 systemd behaviour was awkward as it would only take settings
2276 from User= assignment placed before the specifier into
2277 account. In order to unify and simplify the logic around
2278 this the specifiers will now always resolve to the
2279 credentials of the user invoking the manager (which in case
2280 of PID 1 is the root user).
2281
2282 Contributions from: Andrew Jones, Beniamino Galvani, Boyuan
2283 Yang, Daniel Machon, Daniel Mack, David Herrmann, David
2284 Reynolds, David Strauss, Dongsu Park, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
f1f8a5a5
LP
2285 Felipe Sateler, Filipe Brandenburger, Franck Bui, Hristo
2286 Venev, Iago López Galeiras, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jan
2287 Synacek, Jesus Ornelas Aguayo, Karel Zak, kayrus, Kay Sievers,
2288 Lennart Poettering, Liu Yuan Yuan, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel
2289 Holtmann, Marcin Bachry, Marcos Alano, Marcos Mello, Mark
2290 Theunissen, Martin Pitt, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich,
2291 Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mirco Tischler, Nick Owens,
2292 Nicolas Cornu, Patrik Flykt, Peter Hutterer, reverendhomer,
2293 Ronny Chevalier, Sangjung Woo, Seong-ho Cho, Shawn Landden,
2294 Susant Sahani, Thomas Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen,
2295 Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Vito Caputo, Zbigniew
2296 Jędrzejewski-Szmek
28c85daf 2297
ccddd104 2298 — Berlin, 2015-11-18
a11c7ea5 2299
c97e586d
DM
2300CHANGES WITH 227:
2301
2302 * systemd now depends on util-linux v2.27. More specifically,
2303 the newly added mount monitor feature in libmount now
2304 replaces systemd's former own implementation.
2305
2306 * libmount mandates /etc/mtab not to be regular file, and
2307 systemd now enforces this condition at early boot.
2308 /etc/mtab has been deprecated and warned about for a very
2309 long time, so systems running systemd should already have
2310 stopped having this file around as anything else than a
2311 symlink to /proc/self/mounts.
2312
d046fb93
LP
2313 * Support for the "pids" cgroup controller has been added. It
2314 allows accounting the number of tasks in a cgroup and
c97e586d
DM
2315 enforcing limits on it. This adds two new setting
2316 TasksAccounting= and TasksMax= to each unit, as well as a
6fd5517b 2317 global option DefaultTasksAccounting=.
c97e586d
DM
2318
2319 * Support for the "net_cls" cgroup controller has been added.
fe08a30b
LP
2320 It allows assigning a net class ID to each task in the
2321 cgroup, which can then be used in firewall rules and traffic
2322 shaping configurations. Note that the kernel netfilter net
2323 class code does not currently work reliably for ingress
2324 packets on unestablished sockets.
c97e586d
DM
2325
2326 This adds a new config directive called NetClass= to CGroup
6fd5517b 2327 enabled units. Allowed values are positive numbers for fixed
c97e586d
DM
2328 assignments and "auto" for picking a free value
2329 automatically.
2330
21d86c61
DM
2331 * 'systemctl is-system-running' now returns 'offline' if the
2332 system is not booted with systemd. This command can now be
2333 used as a substitute for 'systemd-notify --booted'.
2334
2335 * Watchdog timeouts have been increased to 3 minutes for all
2336 in-tree service files. Apparently, disk IO issues are more
2337 frequent than we hoped, and user reported >1 minute waiting
2338 for disk IO.
2339
2340 * 'machine-id-commit' functionality has been merged into
2341 'machine-id-setup --commit'. The separate binary has been
2342 removed.
2343
d046fb93
LP
2344 * The WorkingDirectory= directive in unit files may now be set
2345 to the special value '~'. In this case, the working
2346 directory is set to the home directory of the user
2347 configured in User=.
21d86c61 2348
fe08a30b
LP
2349 * "machinectl shell" will now open the shell in the home
2350 directory of the selected user by default.
2351
21d86c61 2352 * The CrashChVT= configuration file setting is renamed to
d046fb93
LP
2353 CrashChangeVT=, following our usual logic of not
2354 abbreviating unnecessarily. The old directive is still
2355 supported for compat reasons. Also, this directive now takes
2356 an integer value between 1 and 63, or a boolean value. The
2357 formerly supported '-1' value for disabling stays around for
2358 compat reasons.
21d86c61 2359
fe08a30b 2360 * The PrivateTmp=, PrivateDevices=, PrivateNetwork=,
8b5f9d15 2361 NoNewPrivileges=, TTYPath=, WorkingDirectory= and
fe08a30b
LP
2362 RootDirectory= properties can now be set for transient
2363 units.
2364
2365 * The systemd-analyze tool gained a new "set-log-target" verb
2366 to change the logging target the system manager logs to
2367 dynamically during runtime. This is similar to how
2368 "systemd-analyze set-log-level" already changes the log
2369 level.
2370
2371 * In nspawn /sys is now mounted as tmpfs, with only a selected
2372 set of subdirectories mounted in from the real sysfs. This
2373 enhances security slightly, and is useful for ensuring user
2374 namespaces work correctly.
2375
2376 * Support for USB FunctionFS activation has been added. This
2377 allows implementation of USB gadget services that are
2378 activated as soon as they are requested, so that they don't
595bfe7d 2379 have to run continuously, similar to classic socket
fe08a30b
LP
2380 activation.
2381
2382 * The "systemctl exit" command now optionally takes an
2383 additional parameter that sets the exit code to return from
2384 the systemd manager when exiting. This is only relevant when
2385 running the systemd user instance, or when running the
2386 system instance in a container.
2387
2388 * sd-bus gained the new API calls sd_bus_path_encode_many()
2389 and sd_bus_path_decode_many() that allow easy encoding and
2390 decoding of multiple identifier strings inside a D-Bus
2391 object path. Another new call sd_bus_default_flush_close()
2392 has been added to flush and close per-thread default
2393 connections.
2394
2395 * systemd-cgtop gained support for a -M/--machine= switch to
2396 show the control groups within a certain container only.
2397
2398 * "systemctl kill" gained support for an optional --fail
2399 switch. If specified the requested operation will fail of no
2400 processes have been killed, because the unit had no
2401 processes attached, or similar.
2402
bdba9227
DM
2403 * A new systemd.crash_reboot=1 kernel command line option has
2404 been added that triggers a reboot after crashing. This can
2405 also be set through CrashReboot= in systemd.conf.
2406
2407 * The RuntimeDirectory= setting now understands unit
2408 specifiers like %i or %f.
2409
ce830873 2410 * A new (still internal) library API sd-ipv4acd has been added,
fe08a30b
LP
2411 that implements address conflict detection for IPv4. It's
2412 based on code from sd-ipv4ll, and will be useful for
2413 detecting DHCP address conflicts.
2414
bdba9227
DM
2415 * File descriptors passed during socket activation may now be
2416 named. A new API sd_listen_fds_with_names() is added to
a8eaaee7 2417 access the names. The default names may be overridden,
bdba9227
DM
2418 either in the .socket file using the FileDescriptorName=
2419 parameter, or by passing FDNAME= when storing the file
2420 descriptors using sd_notify().
fe08a30b 2421
d046fb93
LP
2422 * systemd-networkd gained support for:
2423
0053598f 2424 - Setting the IPv6 Router Advertisement settings via
edf4126f 2425 IPv6AcceptRouterAdvertisements= in .network files.
d046fb93
LP
2426
2427 - Configuring the HelloTimeSec=, MaxAgeSec= and
2428 ForwardDelaySec= bridge parameters in .netdev files.
2429
2430 - Configuring PreferredSource= for static routes in
edf4126f 2431 .network files.
fe08a30b 2432
bdba9227
DM
2433 * The "ask-password" framework used to query for LUKS harddisk
2434 passwords or SSL passwords during boot gained support for
2435 caching passwords in the kernel keyring, if it is
2436 available. This makes sure that the user only has to type in
2437 a passphrase once if there are multiple objects to unlock
2438 with the same one. Previously, such password caching was
2439 available only when Plymouth was used; this moves the
2440 caching logic into the systemd codebase itself. The
2441 "systemd-ask-password" utility gained a new --keyname=
2442 switch to control which kernel keyring key to use for
2443 caching a password in. This functionality is also useful for
2444 enabling display managers such as gdm to automatically
2445 unlock the user's GNOME keyring if its passphrase, the
2446 user's password and the harddisk password are the same, if
2447 gdm-autologin is used.
fe08a30b
LP
2448
2449 * When downloading tar or raw images using "machinectl
2450 pull-tar" or "machinectl pull-raw", a matching ".nspawn"
2451 file is now also downloaded, if it is available and stored
2452 next to the image file.
c97e586d 2453
91d0d699
LP
2454 * Units of type ".socket" gained a new boolean setting
2455 Writable= which is only useful in conjunction with
2456 ListenSpecial=. If true, enables opening the specified
2457 special file in O_RDWR mode rather than O_RDONLY mode.
2458
2459 * systemd-rfkill has been reworked to become a singleton
2460 service that is activated through /dev/rfkill on each rfkill
2461 state change and saves the settings to disk. This way,
2462 systemd-rfkill is now compatible with devices that exist
2463 only intermittendly, and even restores state if the previous
2464 system shutdown was abrupt rather than clean.
2465
d046fb93
LP
2466 * The journal daemon gained support for vacuuming old journal
2467 files controlled by the number of files that shall remain,
2468 in addition to the already existing control by size and by
2469 date. This is useful as journal interleaving performance
6dd6a9c4 2470 degrades with too many separate journal files, and allows
d046fb93
LP
2471 putting an effective limit on them. The new setting defaults
2472 to 100, but this may be changed by setting SystemMaxFiles=
2473 and RuntimeMaxFiles= in journald.conf. Also, the
2474 "journalctl" tool gained the new --vacuum-files= switch to
2475 manually vacuum journal files to leave only the specified
2476 number of files in place.
c48eb61f 2477
bdba9227
DM
2478 * udev will now create /dev/disk/by-path links for ATA devices
2479 on kernels where that is supported.
c30f086f 2480
efce0ffe 2481 * Galician, Serbian, Turkish and Korean translations were added.
c97e586d 2482
61e6771c
LP
2483 Contributions from: Aaro Koskinen, Alban Crequy, Beniamino
2484 Galvani, Benjamin Robin, Branislav Blaskovic, Chen-Han Hsiao
2485 (Stanley), Daniel Buch, Daniel Machon, Daniel Mack, David
2486 Herrmann, David Milburn, doubleodoug, Evgeny Vereshchagin,
2487 Felipe Franciosi, Filipe Brandenburger, Fran Dieguez, Gabriel
2488 de Perthuis, Georg Müller, Hans de Goede, Hendrik Brueckner,
2489 Ivan Shapovalov, Jacob Keller, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen,
2490 Jan Synacek, Jens Kuske, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Krzesimir
2491 Nowak, Krzysztof Kotlenga, Lars Uebernickel, Lennart
2492 Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Łukasz Stelmach, Maciej Wereski,
2493 Marcel Holtmann, Marius Thesing, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl,
2494 Michael Gebetsroither, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mike
2495 Gilbert, Muhammet Kara, nazgul77, Nicolas Cornu, NoXPhasma,
2496 Olof Johansson, Patrik Flykt, Pawel Szewczyk, reverendhomer,
2497 Ronny Chevalier, Sangjung Woo, Seong-ho Cho, Susant Sahani,
2498 Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
2499 Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tom Lyon, Viktar Vauchkevich,
2500 Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Марко М. Костић
2501
ccddd104 2502 — Berlin, 2015-10-07
c97e586d 2503
c9912c5e
DH
2504CHANGES WITH 226:
2505
5e8d4254
LP
2506 * The DHCP implementation of systemd-networkd gained a set of
2507 new features:
2508
2509 - The DHCP server now supports emitting DNS and NTP
2510 information. It may be enabled and configured via
2511 EmitDNS=, DNS=, EmitNTP=, and NTP=. If transmission of DNS
2512 and NTP information is enabled, but no servers are
2513 configured, the corresponding uplink information (if there
2514 is any) is propagated.
2515
2516 - Server and client now support transmission and reception
2517 of timezone information. It can be configured via the
2518 newly introduced network options UseTimezone=,
2519 EmitTimezone=, and Timezone=. Transmission of timezone
2520 information is enabled between host and containers by
2521 default now: the container will change its local timezone
2522 to what the host has set.
2523
2524 - Lease timeouts can now be configured via
2525 MaxLeaseTimeSec= and DefaultLeaseTimeSec=.
2526
2527 - The DHCP server improved on the stability of
2528 leases. Clients are more likely to get the same lease
2529 information back, even if the server loses state.
2530
2531 - The DHCP server supports two new configuration options to
2532 control the lease address pool metrics, PoolOffset= and
2533 PoolSize=.
2534
2535 * The encapsulation limit of tunnels in systemd-networkd may
2536 now be configured via 'EncapsulationLimit='. It allows
2537 modifying the maximum additional levels of encapsulation
2538 that are permitted to be prepended to a packet.
2539
2540 * systemd now supports the concept of user buses replacing
2541 session buses, if used with dbus-1.10 (and enabled via dbus
2542 --enable-user-session). It previously only supported this on
2543 kdbus-enabled systems, and this release expands this to
2544 'dbus-daemon' systems.
2545
2546 * systemd-networkd now supports predictable interface names
2547 for virtio devices.
2548
2549 * systemd now optionally supports the new Linux kernel
2550 "unified" control group hierarchy. If enabled via the kernel
2551 command-line option 'systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1',
2552 systemd will try to mount the unified cgroup hierarchy
2553 directly on /sys/fs/cgroup. If not enabled, or not
2554 available, systemd will fall back to the legacy cgroup
2555 hierarchy setup, as before. Host system and containers can
2556 mix and match legacy and unified hierarchies as they
856ca72b 2557 wish. nspawn understands the $UNIFIED_CGROUP_HIERARCHY
5e8d4254
LP
2558 environment variable to individually select the hierarchy to
2559 use for executed containers. By default, nspawn will use the
2560 unified hierarchy for the containers if the host uses the
2561 unified hierarchy, and the legacy hierarchy otherwise.
2562 Please note that at this point the unified hierarchy is an
2563 experimental kernel feature and is likely to change in one
2564 of the next kernel releases. Therefore, it should not be
2565 enabled by default in downstream distributions yet. The
2566 minimum required kernel version for the unified hierarchy to
2567 work is 4.2. Note that when the unified hierarchy is used
2568 for the first time delegated access to controllers is
2569 safe. Because of this systemd-nspawn containers will get
2570 access to controllers now, as will systemd user
2571 sessions. This means containers and user sessions may now
2572 manage their own resources, partitioning up what the system
2573 grants them.
2574
2575 * A new special scope unit "init.scope" has been introduced
2576 that encapsulates PID 1 of the system. It may be used to
2577 determine resource usage and enforce resource limits on PID
2578 1 itself. PID 1 hence moved out of the root of the control
2579 group tree.
2580
2581 * The cgtop tool gained support for filtering out kernel
2582 threads when counting tasks in a control group. Also, the
2583 count of processes is now recursively summed up by
2584 default. Two options -k and --recursive= have been added to
2585 revert to old behaviour. The tool has also been updated to
2586 work correctly in containers now.
2587
2588 * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --bind-ro= options have been
2589 extended to allow creation of non-recursive bind mounts.
2590
c626bf1d
DM
2591 * libsystemd gained two new calls sd_pid_get_cgroup() and
2592 sd_peer_get_cgroup() which return the control group path of
5e8d4254
LP
2593 a process or peer of a connected AF_UNIX socket. This
2594 function call is particularly useful when implementing
2595 delegated subtrees support in the control group hierarchy.
2596
2597 * The "sd-event" event loop API of libsystemd now supports
2598 correct dequeuing of real-time signals, without losing
2599 signal events.
2600
2601 * When systemd requests a PolicyKit decision when managing
2602 units it will now add additional fields to the request,
2603 including unit name and desired operation. This enables more
2604 powerful PolicyKit policies, that make decisions depending
2605 on these parameters.
c9912c5e 2606
47f5a38c
LP
2607 * nspawn learnt support for .nspawn settings files, that may
2608 accompany the image files or directories of containers, and
2609 may contain additional settings for the container. This is
2610 an alternative to configuring container parameters via the
2611 nspawn command line.
2612
2f77decc
LP
2613 Contributions from: Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Mack, David
2614 Herrmann, Eugene Yakubovich, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Filipe
2615 Brandenburger, Hans de Goede, Jan Alexander Steffens, Jan
2616 Synacek, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Mangix, Marcel
2617 Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Chapman, Michal
2618 Sekletar, Peter Hutterer, Piotr Drąg, reverendhomer, Robin
2619 Hack, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Pasche, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
23d08d1b 2620 Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø
c9912c5e 2621
ccddd104 2622 — Berlin, 2015-09-08
c9912c5e 2623
ec5249a2
DM
2624CHANGES WITH 225:
2625
5e8d4254
LP
2626 * machinectl gained a new verb 'shell' which opens a fresh
2627 shell on the target container or the host. It is similar to
2628 the existing 'login' command of machinectl, but spawns the
2629 shell directly without prompting for username or
2630 password. The pseudo machine '.host' now refers to the local
2631 host and is used by default. Hence, 'machinectl shell' can
2632 be used as replacement for 'su -' which spawns a session as
2633 a fresh systemd unit in a way that is fully isolated from
2634 the originating session.
2635
2636 * systemd-networkd learned to cope with private-zone DHCP
2637 options and allows other programs to query the values.
2638
2639 * SELinux access control when enabling/disabling units is no
2640 longer enforced with this release. The previous
2641 implementation was incorrect, and a new corrected
2642 implementation is not yet available. As unit file operations
2643 are still protected via PolicyKit and D-Bus policy this is
2644 not a security problem. Yet, distributions which care about
2645 optimal SELinux support should probably not stabilize on
2646 this release.
2647
2648 * sd-bus gained support for matches of type "arg0has=", that
2649 test for membership of strings in string arrays sent in bus
2650 messages.
2651
2652 * systemd-resolved now dumps the contents of its DNS and LLMNR
2653 caches to the logs on reception of the SIGUSR1 signal. This
2654 is useful to debug DNS behaviour.
2655
2656 * The coredumpctl tool gained a new --directory= option to
2657 operate on journal files in a specific directory.
2658
2659 * "systemctl reboot" and related commands gained a new
2660 "--message=" option which may be used to set a free-text
2661 wall message when shutting down or rebooting the
2662 system. This message is also logged, which is useful for
2663 figuring out the reason for a reboot or shutdown a
2664 posteriori.
2665
2666 * The "systemd-resolve-host" tool's -i switch now takes
2667 network interface numbers as alternative to interface names.
2668
2669 * A new unit file setting for services has been introduced:
2670 UtmpMode= allows configuration of how precisely systemd
2671 handles utmp and wtmp entries for the service if this is
2672 enabled. This allows writing services that appear similar to
2673 user sessions in the output of the "w", "who", "last" and
2674 "lastlog" tools.
2675
2676 * systemd-resolved will now locally synthesize DNS resource
2677 records for the "localhost" and "gateway" domains as well as
2678 the local hostname. This should ensure that clients querying
2679 RRs via resolved will get similar results as those going via
2680 NSS, if nss-myhostname is enabled.
2681
2682 Contributions from: Alastair Hughes, Alex Crawford, Daniel
2683 Mack, David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov, Eric Kostrowski,
2684 Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, HATAYAMA Daisuke, Jan
2685 Pokorný, Jan Synacek, Johnny Robeson, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers,
2686 Kefeng Wang, Lennart Poettering, Major Hayden, Marcel
2687 Holtmann, Markus Elfring, Martin Mikkelsen, Martin Pitt, Matt
2688 Turner, Maxim Mikityanskiy, Michael Biebl, Namhyung Kim,
2689 Nicolas Cornu, Owen W. Taylor, Patrik Flykt, Peter Hutterer,
2690 reverendhomer, Richard Maw, Ronny Chevalier, Seth Jennings,
2691 Stef Walter, Susant Sahani, Thomas Blume, Thomas Hindoe
2692 Paaboel Andersen, Thomas Meyer, Tom Gundersen, Vincent Batts,
2693 WaLyong Cho, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
e1439a14 2694
ccddd104 2695 — Berlin, 2015-08-27
ec5249a2 2696
11811e85
DH
2697CHANGES WITH 224:
2698
10fa421c
DH
2699 * The systemd-efi-boot-generator functionality was merged into
2700 systemd-gpt-auto-generator.
2701
5e8d4254
LP
2702 * systemd-networkd now supports Group Policy for vxlan
2703 devices. It can be enabled via the new boolean configuration
2704 option called 'GroupPolicyExtension='.
10fa421c 2705
11811e85
DH
2706 Contributions from: Andreas Kempf, Christian Hesse, Daniel Mack, David
2707 Herrmann, Herman Fries, Johannes Nixdorf, Kay Sievers, Lennart
2708 Poettering, Peter Hutterer, Susant Sahani, Tom Gundersen
2709
ccddd104 2710 — Berlin, 2015-07-31
11811e85 2711
e57eaef8
DH
2712CHANGES WITH 223:
2713
2714 * The python-systemd code has been removed from the systemd repository.
2715 A new repository has been created which accommodates the code from
2716 now on, and we kindly ask distributions to create a separate package
2717 for this: https://github.com/systemd/python-systemd
2718
01608bc8 2719 * The systemd daemon will now reload its main configuration
e57eaef8
DH
2720 (/etc/systemd/system.conf) on daemon-reload.
2721
2722 * sd-dhcp now exposes vendor specific extensions via
2723 sd_dhcp_lease_get_vendor_specific().
2724
931618d0
DM
2725 * systemd-networkd gained a number of new configuration options.
2726
2727 - A new boolean configuration option for TAP devices called
37d54b93 2728 'VNetHeader='. If set, the IFF_VNET_HDR flag is set for the
931618d0
DM
2729 device, thus allowing to send and receive GSO packets.
2730
2731 - A new tunnel configuration option called 'CopyDSCP='.
2732 If enabled, the DSCP field of ip6 tunnels is copied into the
2733 decapsulated packet.
2734
2735 - A set of boolean bridge configuration options were added.
2736 'UseBPDU=', 'HairPin=', 'FastLeave=', 'AllowPortToBeRoot=',
2737 and 'UnicastFlood=' are now parsed by networkd and applied to the
2738 respective bridge link device via the respective IFLA_BRPORT_*
2739 netlink attribute.
2740
2741 - A new string configuration option to override the hostname sent
2742 to a DHCP server, called 'Hostname='. If set and 'SendHostname='
2743 is true, networkd will use the configured hostname instead of the
2744 system hostname when sending DHCP requests.
2745
2746 - A new tunnel configuration option called 'IPv6FlowLabel='. If set,
2747 networkd will configure the IPv6 flow-label of the tunnel device
2748 according to RFC2460.
e57eaef8 2749
f5f113f6
DH
2750 - The 'macvtap' virtual network devices are now supported, similar to
2751 the already supported 'macvlan' devices.
2752
e57eaef8 2753 * systemd-resolved now implements RFC5452 to improve resilience against
01608bc8 2754 cache poisoning. Additionally, source port randomization is enabled
e57eaef8
DH
2755 by default to further protect against DNS spoofing attacks.
2756
2757 * nss-mymachines now supports translating UIDs and GIDs of running
2758 containers with user-namespaces enabled. If a container 'foo'
2759 translates a host uid 'UID' to the container uid 'TUID', then
2760 nss-mymachines will also map uid 'UID' to/from username 'vu-foo-TUID'
2761 (with 'foo' and 'TUID' replaced accordingly). Similarly, groups are
2762 mapped as 'vg-foo-TGID'.
2763
2764 Contributions from: Beniamino Galvani, cee1, Christian Hesse, Daniel
e4e66993
DH
2765 Buch, Daniel Mack, daurnimator, David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov,
2766 HATAYAMA Daisuke, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan Alexander Steffens (heftig),
2767 Johan Ouwerkerk, Jose Carlos Venegas Munoz, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers,
2768 Lennart Poettering, Lidong Zhong, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael
2769 Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Namhyung Kim,
2770 Nick Owens, Peter Hutterer, Richard Maw, Steven Allen, Sungbae Yoo,
2771 Susant Sahani, Thomas Blume, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom
2772 Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Vito Caputo,
2773 Vivenzio Pagliari, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
2774
ccddd104 2775 — Berlin, 2015-07-29
e57eaef8 2776
0db83ad7 2777CHANGES WITH 222:
5541c889 2778
861b02eb
KS
2779 * udev does not longer support the WAIT_FOR_SYSFS= key in udev rules.
2780 There are no known issues with current sysfs, and udev does not need
2781 or should be used to work around such bugs.
2782
2783 * udev does no longer enable USB HID power management. Several reports
2784 indicate, that some devices cannot handle that setting.
0db83ad7
DH
2785
2786 * The udev accelerometer helper was removed. The functionality
2787 is now fully included in iio-sensor-proxy. But this means,
2788 older iio-sensor-proxy versions will no longer provide
2789 accelerometer/orientation data with this systemd version.
2790 Please upgrade iio-sensor-proxy to version 1.0.
2791
5541c889
DH
2792 * networkd gained a new configuration option IPv6PrivacyExtensions=
2793 which enables IPv6 privacy extensions (RFC 4941, "Privacy Extensions
2794 for Stateless Address") on selected networks.
2795
9b361114
DM
2796 * For the sake of fewer build-time dependencies and less code in the
2797 main repository, the python bindings are about to be removed in the
2798 next release. A new repository has been created which accommodates
2799 the code from now on, and we kindly ask distributions to create a
2800 separate package for this. The removal will take place in v223.
2801
2802 https://github.com/systemd/python-systemd
2803
0db83ad7
DH
2804 Contributions from: Abdo Roig-Maranges, Andrew Eikum, Bastien Nocera,
2805 Cédric Delmas, Christian Hesse, Christos Trochalakis, Daniel Mack,
2806 daurnimator, David Herrmann, Dimitri John Ledkov, Eric Biggers, Eric
2807 Cook, Felipe Sateler, Geert Jansen, Gerd Hoffmann, Gianpaolo Macario,
5541c889
DH
2808 Greg Kroah-Hartman, Iago López Galeiras, Jan Alexander Steffens
2809 (heftig), Jan Engelhardt, Jay Strict, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
0db83ad7
DH
2810 Markus Knetschke, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau, Michal
2811 Sekletar, Miguel Bernal Marin, Peter Hutterer, Richard Maw, rinrinne,
2d1ca112
DH
2812 Susant Sahani, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein
2813 Husebø, Vedran Miletić, WaLyong Cho, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
0db83ad7 2814
ccddd104 2815 — Berlin, 2015-07-07
0db83ad7 2816
0f0467e6
MP
2817CHANGES WITH 221:
2818
470e72d4 2819 * The sd-bus.h and sd-event.h APIs have now been declared
5f92d24f 2820 stable and have been added to the official interface of
470e72d4
LP
2821 libsystemd.so. sd-bus implements an alternative D-Bus client
2822 library, that is relatively easy to use, very efficient and
2823 supports both classic D-Bus as well as kdbus as transport
2824 backend. sd-event is a generic event loop abstraction that
2825 is built around Linux epoll, but adds features such as event
0aee49d5 2826 prioritization or efficient timer handling. Both APIs are good
470e72d4
LP
2827 choices for C programs looking for a bus and/or event loop
2828 implementation that is minimal and does not have to be
5f92d24f 2829 portable to other kernels.
0f0467e6 2830
470e72d4
LP
2831 * kdbus support is no longer compile-time optional. It is now
2832 always built-in. However, it can still be disabled at
2833 runtime using the kdbus=0 kernel command line setting, and
c6551464 2834 that setting may be changed to default to off, by specifying
470e72d4
LP
2835 --disable-kdbus at build-time. Note though that the kernel
2836 command line setting has no effect if the kdbus.ko kernel
2837 module is not installed, in which case kdbus is (obviously)
2838 also disabled. We encourage all downstream distributions to
0aee49d5 2839 begin testing kdbus by adding it to the kernel images in the
470e72d4
LP
2840 development distributions, and leaving kdbus support in
2841 systemd enabled.
0f0467e6 2842
470e72d4
LP
2843 * The minimal required util-linux version has been bumped to
2844 2.26.
2845
2846 * Support for chkconfig (--enable-chkconfig) was removed in
0aee49d5 2847 favor of calling an abstraction tool
470e72d4
LP
2848 /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install. This needs to be
2849 implemented for your distribution. See "SYSV INIT.D SCRIPTS"
2850 in README for details.
2851
2852 * If there's a systemd unit and a SysV init script for the
2853 same service name, and the user executes "systemctl enable"
2854 for it (or a related call), then this will now enable both
2855 (or execute the related operation on both), not just the
2856 unit.
2857
2858 * The libudev API documentation has been converted from gtkdoc
2859 into man pages.
2860
2861 * gudev has been removed from the systemd tree, it is now an
2862 external project.
2863
2864 * The systemd-cgtop tool learnt a new --raw switch to generate
0aee49d5 2865 "raw" (machine parsable) output.
470e72d4
LP
2866
2867 * networkd's IPForwarding= .network file setting learnt the
2868 new setting "kernel", which ensures that networkd does not
2869 change the IP forwarding sysctl from the default kernel
2870 state.
2871
2872 * The systemd-logind bus API now exposes a new boolean
2873 property "Docked" that reports whether logind considers the
2874 system "docked", i.e. connected to a docking station or not.
2875
2876 Contributions from: Alex Crawford, Andreas Pokorny, Andrei
2877 Borzenkov, Charles Duffy, Colin Guthrie, Cristian Rodríguez,
2878 Daniele Medri, Daniel Hahler, Daniel Mack, David Herrmann,
2879 David Mohr, Dimitri John Ledkov, Djalal Harouni, dslul, Ed
2880 Swierk, Eric Cook, Filipe Brandenburger, Gianpaolo Macario,
2881 Harald Hoyer, Iago López Galeiras, Igor Vuk, Jan Synacek,
2882 Jason Pleau, Jason S. McMullan, Jean Delvare, Jeff Huang,
2883 Jonathan Boulle, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, kloun, Lennart
2884 Poettering, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Mario
2885 Limonciello, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich,
2886 Michal Schmidt, Mike Gilbert, Nick Owens, Pablo Lezaeta Reyes,
b912e251
LP
2887 Patrick Donnelly, Pavel Odvody, Peter Hutterer, Philip
2888 Withnall, Ronny Chevalier, Simon McVittie, Susant Sahani,
2889 Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Torstein
2890 Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Viktar Vauchkevich, Werner
2891 Fink, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
470e72d4 2892
ccddd104 2893 — Berlin, 2015-06-19
0f0467e6 2894
481a0aa2
LP
2895CHANGES WITH 220:
2896
f7a73a25
DH
2897 * The gudev library has been extracted into a separate repository
2898 available at: https://git.gnome.org/browse/libgudev/
2899 It is now managed as part of the Gnome project. Distributions
2900 are recommended to pass --disable-gudev to systemd and use
2901 gudev from the Gnome project instead. gudev is still included
2902 in systemd, for now. It will be removed soon, though. Please
2903 also see the announcement-thread on systemd-devel:
56cadcb6 2904 https://lists.freedesktop.org/archives/systemd-devel/2015-May/032070.html
f7a73a25 2905
481a0aa2
LP
2906 * systemd now exposes a CPUUsageNSec= property for each
2907 service unit on the bus, that contains the overall consumed
2908 CPU time of a service (the sum of what each process of the
2909 service consumed). This value is only available if
2910 CPUAccounting= is turned on for a service, and is then shown
2911 in the "systemctl status" output.
2912
2913 * Support for configuring alternative mappings of the old SysV
2914 runlevels to systemd targets has been removed. They are now
29d1fcb4 2915 hardcoded in a way that runlevels 2, 3, 4 all map to
481a0aa2
LP
2916 multi-user.target and 5 to graphical.target (which
2917 previously was already the default behaviour).
2918
2919 * The auto-mounter logic gained support for mount point
2920 expiry, using a new TimeoutIdleSec= setting in .automount
2921 units. (Also available as x-systemd.idle-timeout= in /etc/fstab).
2922
2923 * The EFI System Partition (ESP) as mounted to /boot by
2924 systemd-efi-boot-generator will now be unmounted
29d1fcb4 2925 automatically after 2 minutes of not being used. This should
481a0aa2
LP
2926 minimize the risk of ESP corruptions.
2927
2928 * New /etc/fstab options x-systemd.requires= and
2929 x-systemd.requires-mounts-for= are now supported to express
2930 additional dependencies for mounts. This is useful for
2931 journalling file systems that support external journal
2932 devices or overlay file systems that require underlying file
2933 systems to be mounted.
2934
2935 * systemd does not support direct live-upgrades (via systemctl
2936 daemon-reexec) from versions older than v44 anymore. As no
2937 distribution we are aware of shipped such old versions in a
2938 stable release this should not be problematic.
2939
2940 * When systemd forks off a new per-connection service instance
2941 it will now set the $REMOTE_ADDR environment variable to the
2942 remote IP address, and $REMOTE_PORT environment variable to
2943 the remote IP port. This behaviour is similar to the
2944 corresponding environment variables defined by CGI.
2945
2946 * systemd-networkd gained support for uplink failure
2947 detection. The BindCarrier= option allows binding interface
2948 configuration dynamically to the link sense of other
2949 interfaces. This is useful to achieve behaviour like in
2950 network switches.
2951
2952 * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring the DHCP
2953 client identifier to use when requesting leases.
2954
2955 * systemd-networkd now has a per-network UseNTP= option to
2956 configure whether NTP server information acquired via DHCP
2957 is passed on to services like systemd-timesyncd.
2958
2959 * systemd-networkd gained support for vti6 tunnels.
2960
1579dd2c
LP
2961 * Note that systemd-networkd manages the sysctl variable
2962 /proc/sys/net/ipv[46]/conf/*/forwarding for each interface
2963 it is configured for since v219. The variable controls IP
2964 forwarding, and is a per-interface alternative to the global
2965 /proc/sys/net/ipv[46]/ip_forward. This setting is
2966 configurable in the IPForward= option, which defaults to
2967 "no". This means if networkd is used for an interface it is
2968 no longer sufficient to set the global sysctl option to turn
2969 on IP forwarding! Instead, the .network file option
2970 IPForward= needs to be turned on! Note that the
2971 implementation of this behaviour was broken in v219 and has
2972 been fixed in v220.
2973
481a0aa2
LP
2974 * Many bonding and vxlan options are now configurable in
2975 systemd-networkd.
2976
2977 * systemd-nspawn gained a new --property= setting to set unit
2978 properties for the container scope. This is useful for
ce830873 2979 setting resource parameters (e.g. "CPUShares=500") on
481a0aa2
LP
2980 containers started from the command line.
2981
2982 * systemd-nspawn gained a new --private-users= switch to make
2983 use of user namespacing available on recent Linux kernels.
2984
2985 * systemd-nspawn may now be called as part of a shell pipeline
2986 in which case the pipes used for stdin and stdout are passed
2987 directly to the process invoked in the container, without
2988 indirection via a pseudo tty.
2989
2990 * systemd-nspawn gained a new switch to control the UNIX
2991 signal to use when killing the init process of the container
2992 when shutting down.
2993
2994 * systemd-nspawn gained a new --overlay= switch for mounting
2995 overlay file systems into the container using the new kernel
2996 overlayfs support.
2997
2998 * When a container image is imported via systemd-importd and
2999 the host file system is not btrfs, a loopback block device
3000 file is created in /var/lib/machines.raw with a btrfs file
3001 system inside. It is then mounted to /var/lib/machines to
3002 enable btrfs features for container management. The loopback
3003 file and btrfs file system is grown as needed when container
3004 images are imported via systemd-importd.
3005
3006 * systemd-machined/systemd-importd gained support for btrfs
3007 quota, to enforce container disk space limits on disk. This
3008 is exposed in "machinectl set-limit".
3009
3010 * systemd-importd now can import containers from local .tar,
3011 .raw and .qcow2 images, and export them to .tar and .raw. It
3012 can also import dkr v2 images now from the network (on top
3013 of v1 as before).
3014
3015 * systemd-importd gained support for verifying downloaded
3016 images with gpg2 (previously only gpg1 was supported).
3017
3018 * systemd-machined, systemd-logind, systemd: most bus calls
3019 are now accessible to unprivileged processes via
3020 PolicyKit. Also, systemd-logind will now allow users to kill
3021 their own sessions without further privileges or
3022 authorization.
3023
3024 * systemd-shutdownd has been removed. This service was
3025 previously responsible for implementing scheduled shutdowns
3026 as exposed in /usr/bin/shutdown's time parameter. This
3027 functionality has now been moved into systemd-logind and is
3028 accessible via a bus interface.
3029
3030 * "systemctl reboot" gained a new switch --firmware-setup that
3031 can be used to reboot into the EFI firmware setup, if that
3032 is available. systemd-logind now exposes an API on the bus
3033 to trigger such reboots, in case graphical desktop UIs want
3034 to cover this functionality.
3035
3036 * "systemctl enable", "systemctl disable" and "systemctl mask"
1579dd2c 3037 now support a new "--now" switch. If specified the units
481a0aa2
LP
3038 that are enabled will also be started, and the ones
3039 disabled/masked also stopped.
3040
3041 * The Gummiboot EFI boot loader tool has been merged into
1a2d5fbe
DH
3042 systemd, and renamed to "systemd-boot". The bootctl tool has been
3043 updated to support systemd-boot.
481a0aa2
LP
3044
3045 * An EFI kernel stub has been added that may be used to create
3046 kernel EFI binaries that contain not only the actual kernel,
3047 but also an initrd, boot splash, command line and OS release
3048 information. This combined binary can then be signed as a
3049 single image, so that the firmware can verify it all in one
1a2d5fbe 3050 step. systemd-boot has special support for EFI binaries created
481a0aa2
LP
3051 like this and can extract OS release information from them
3052 and show them in the boot menu. This functionality is useful
3053 to implement cryptographically verified boot schemes.
3054
3055 * Optional support has been added to systemd-fsck to pass
3056 fsck's progress report to an AF_UNIX socket in the file
3057 system.
3058
3059 * udev will no longer create device symlinks for all block
3060 devices by default. A blacklist for excluding special block
3061 devices from this logic has been turned into a whitelist
3062 that requires picking block devices explicitly that require
3063 device symlinks.
3064
3065 * A new (currently still internal) API sd-device.h has been
3066 added to libsystemd. This modernized API is supposed to
3067 replace libudev eventually. In fact, already much of libudev
3068 is now just a wrapper around sd-device.h.
3069
3070 * A new hwdb database for storing metadata about pointing
3071 stick devices has been added.
3072
3073 * systemd-tmpfiles gained support for setting file attributes
3074 similar to the "chattr" tool with new 'h' and 'H' lines.
3075
3076 * systemd-journald will no longer unconditionally set the
3077 btrfs NOCOW flag on new journal files. This is instead done
3078 with tmpfiles snippet using the new 'h' line type. This
3079 allows easy disabling of this logic, by masking the
3080 journal-nocow.conf tmpfiles file.
3081
3082 * systemd-journald will now translate audit message types to
3083 human readable identifiers when writing them to the
3084 journal. This should improve readability of audit messages.
3085
3086 * The LUKS logic gained support for the offset= and skip=
3087 options in /etc/crypttab, as previously implemented by
3088 Debian.
3089
3090 * /usr/lib/os-release gained a new optional field VARIANT= for
3091 distributions that support multiple variants (such as a
3092 desktop edition, a server edition, ...)
3093
3094 Contributions from: Aaro Koskinen, Adam Goode, Alban Crequy,
3095 Alberto Fanjul Alonso, Alexander Sverdlin, Alex Puchades, Alin
3096 Rauta, Alison Chaiken, Andrew Jones, Arend van Spriel,
3097 Benedikt Morbach, Benjamin Franzke, Benjamin Tissoires, Blaž
3098 Tomažič, Chris Morgan, Chris Morin, Colin Walters, Cristian
3099 Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniel Drake, Daniele Medri, Daniel
3100 Mack, Daniel Mustieles, daurnimator, Davide Bettio, David
3101 Herrmann, David Strauss, Didier Roche, Dimitri John Ledkov,
3102 Eric Cook, Gavin Li, Goffredo Baroncelli, Hannes Reinecke,
3103 Hans de Goede, Hans-Peter Deifel, Harald Hoyer, Iago López
3104 Galeiras, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jan
3105 Pazdziora, Jan Synacek, Jasper St. Pierre, Jay Faulkner, John
3106 Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jonathon Gilbert, Karel Zak, Kay
3107 Sievers, Koen Kooi, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lucas
3108 De Marchi, Lukas Nykryn, Lukas Rusak, Lukasz Skalski, Łukasz
3109 Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel
3110 Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Mathieu Chevrier, Matthew Garrett,
3111 Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal
3112 Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mirco Tischler, Nir Soffer, Patrik
3113 Flykt, Pavel Odvody, Peter Hutterer, Peter Lemenkov, Peter
3114 Waller, Piotr Drąg, Raul Gutierrez S, Richard Maw, Ronny
3115 Chevalier, Ross Burton, Sebastian Rasmussen, Sergey Ptashnick,
3116 Seth Jennings, Shawn Landden, Simon Farnsworth, Stefan Junker,
3117 Stephen Gallagher, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas
3118 Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tobias Hunger, Tom
3119 Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Will
3120 Woods, Zachary Cook, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
3121
ccddd104 3122 — Berlin, 2015-05-22
481a0aa2 3123
615aaf41
LP
3124CHANGES WITH 219:
3125
615aaf41
LP
3126 * Introduce a new API "sd-hwdb.h" for querying the hardware
3127 metadata database. With this minimal interface one can query
3128 and enumerate the udev hwdb, decoupled from the old libudev
3129 library. libudev's interface for this is now only a wrapper
3130 around sd-hwdb. A new tool systemd-hwdb has been added to
3131 interface with and update the database.
3132
3133 * When any of systemd's tools copies files (for example due to
3134 tmpfiles' C lines) a btrfs reflink will attempted first,
3135 before bytewise copying is done.
3136
3137 * systemd-nspawn gained a new --ephemeral switch. When
3138 specified a btrfs snapshot is taken of the container's root
3139 directory, and immediately removed when the container
3140 terminates again. Thus, a container can be started whose
3141 changes never alter the container's root directory, and are
3142 lost on container termination. This switch can also be used
3143 for starting a container off the root file system of the
3144 host without affecting the host OS. This switch is only
3145 available on btrfs file systems.
3146
3147 * systemd-nspawn gained a new --template= switch. It takes the
3148 path to a container tree to use as template for the tree
7edecf21 3149 specified via --directory=, should that directory be
615aaf41
LP
3150 missing. This allows instantiating containers dynamically,
3151 on first run. This switch is only available on btrfs file
3152 systems.
3153
3154 * When a .mount unit refers to a mount point on which multiple
3155 mounts are stacked, and the .mount unit is stopped all of
3156 the stacked mount points will now be unmounted until no
3157 mount point remains.
3158
3159 * systemd now has an explicit notion of supported and
3160 unsupported unit types. Jobs enqueued for unsupported unit
3161 types will now fail with an "unsupported" error code. More
3162 specifically .swap, .automount and .device units are not
3163 supported in containers, .busname units are not supported on
3164 non-kdbus systems. .swap and .automount are also not
3165 supported if their respective kernel compile time options
3166 are disabled.
3167
3168 * machinectl gained support for two new "copy-from" and
3169 "copy-to" commands for copying files from a running
3170 container to the host or vice versa.
3171
3172 * machinectl gained support for a new "bind" command to bind
3173 mount host directories into local containers. This is
3174 currently only supported for nspawn containers.
3175
3176 * networkd gained support for configuring bridge forwarding
3177 database entries (fdb) from .network files.
3178
3179 * A new tiny daemon "systemd-importd" has been added that can
3180 download container images in tar, raw, qcow2 or dkr formats,
3181 and make them available locally in /var/lib/machines, so
3182 that they can run as nspawn containers. The daemon can GPG
3183 verify the downloads (not supported for dkr, since it has no
3184 provisions for verifying downloads). It will transparently
3185 decompress bz2, xz, gzip compressed downloads if necessary,
3186 and restore sparse files on disk. The daemon uses privilege
3187 separation to ensure the actual download logic runs with
94e5ba37 3188 fewer privileges than the daemon itself. machinectl has
615aaf41
LP
3189 gained new commands "pull-tar", "pull-raw" and "pull-dkr" to
3190 make the functionality of importd available to the
3191 user. With this in place the Fedora and Ubuntu "Cloud"
3192 images can be downloaded and booted as containers unmodified
3193 (the Fedora images lack the appropriate GPG signature files
3194 currently, so they cannot be verified, but this will change
3195 soon, hopefully). Note that downloading images is currently
3196 only fully supported on btrfs.
3197
3198 * machinectl is now able to list container images found in
3199 /var/lib/machines, along with some metadata about sizes of
3200 disk and similar. If the directory is located on btrfs and
3201 quota is enabled, this includes quota display. A new command
3202 "image-status" has been added that shows additional
3203 information about images.
3204
3205 * machinectl is now able to clone container images
3206 efficiently, if the underlying file system (btrfs) supports
f59dba26 3207 it, with the new "machinectl clone" command. It also
615aaf41
LP
3208 gained commands for renaming and removing images, as well as
3209 marking them read-only or read-write (supported also on
3210 legacy file systems).
3211
3212 * networkd gained support for collecting LLDP network
3213 announcements, from hardware that supports this. This is
3214 shown in networkctl output.
3215
3216 * systemd-run gained support for a new -t (--pty) switch for
3217 invoking a binary on a pty whose input and output is
3218 connected to the invoking terminal. This allows executing
3219 processes as system services while interactively
3220 communicating with them via the terminal. Most interestingly
3221 this is supported across container boundaries. Invoking
3222 "systemd-run -t /bin/bash" is an alternative to running a
3223 full login session, the difference being that the former
3224 will not register a session, nor go through the PAM session
3225 setup.
3226
3227 * tmpfiles gained support for a new "v" line type for creating
3228 btrfs subvolumes. If the underlying file system is a legacy
3229 file system, this automatically degrades to creating a
3230 normal directory. Among others /var/lib/machines is now
3231 created like this at boot, should it be missing.
3232
3233 * The directory /var/lib/containers/ has been deprecated and
3234 been replaced by /var/lib/machines. The term "machines" has
3235 been used in the systemd context as generic term for both
3236 VMs and containers, and hence appears more appropriate for
3237 this, as the directory can also contain raw images bootable
3238 via qemu/kvm.
3239
3240 * systemd-nspawn when invoked with -M but without --directory=
3241 or --image= is now capable of searching for the container
3242 root directory, subvolume or disk image automatically, in
3243 /var/lib/machines. systemd-nspawn@.service has been updated
3244 to make use of this, thus allowing it to be used for raw
3245 disk images, too.
3246
3247 * A new machines.target unit has been introduced that is
3248 supposed to group all containers/VMs invoked as services on
3249 the system. systemd-nspawn@.service has been updated to
3250 integrate with that.
3251
3252 * machinectl gained a new "start" command, for invoking a
3253 container as a service. "machinectl start foo" is mostly
3254 equivalent to "systemctl start systemd-nspawn@foo.service",
3255 but handles escaping in a nicer way.
3256
3257 * systemd-nspawn will now mount most of the cgroupfs tree
3258 read-only into each container, with the exception of the
3259 container's own subtree in the name=systemd hierarchy.
3260
3261 * journald now sets the special FS_NOCOW file flag for its
3262 journal files. This should improve performance on btrfs, by
3263 avoiding heavy fragmentation when journald's write-pattern
3264 is used on COW file systems. It degrades btrfs' data
3265 integrity guarantees for the files to the same levels as for
3266 ext3/ext4 however. This should be OK though as journald does
3267 its own data integrity checks and all its objects are
3268 checksummed on disk. Also, journald should handle btrfs disk
3269 full events a lot more gracefully now, by processing SIGBUS
3270 errors, and not relying on fallocate() anymore.
3271
3272 * When journald detects that journal files it is writing to
3273 have been deleted it will immediately start new journal
3274 files.
3275
3276 * systemd now provides a way to store file descriptors
4c37970d 3277 per-service in PID 1. This is useful for daemons to ensure
615aaf41 3278 that fds they require are not lost during a daemon
94e5ba37 3279 restart. The fds are passed to the daemon on the next
615aaf41
LP
3280 invocation in the same way socket activation fds are
3281 passed. This is now used by journald to ensure that the
3282 various sockets connected to all the system's stdout/stderr
3283 are not lost when journald is restarted. File descriptors
3284 may be stored in PID 1 via the sd_pid_notify_with_fds() API,
3285 an extension to sd_notify(). Note that a limit is enforced
3286 on the number of fds a service can store in PID 1, and it
3287 defaults to 0, so that no fds may be stored, unless this is
3288 explicitly turned on.
3289
3290 * The default TERM variable to use for units connected to a
3291 terminal, when no other value is explicitly is set is now
3292 vt220 rather than vt102. This should be fairly safe still,
3293 but allows PgUp/PgDn work.
3294
3295 * The /etc/crypttab option header= as known from Debian is now
3296 supported.
3297
3298 * "loginctl user-status" and "loginctl session-status" will
3299 now show the last 10 lines of log messages of the
3300 user/session following the status output. Similar,
3301 "machinectl status" will show the last 10 log lines
3302 associated with a virtual machine or container
3303 service. (Note that this is usually not the log messages
3304 done in the VM/container itself, but simply what the
3305 container manager logs. For nspawn this includes all console
3306 output however.)
3307
3308 * "loginctl session-status" without further argument will now
3309 show the status of the session of the caller. Similar,
3310 "lock-session", "unlock-session", "activate",
3311 "enable-linger", "disable-linger" may now be called without
3312 session/user parameter in which case they apply to the
3313 caller's session/user.
3314
3315 * An X11 session scriptlet is now shipped that uploads
3316 $DISPLAY and $XAUTHORITY into the environment of the systemd
3317 --user daemon if a session begins. This should improve
3318 compatibility with X11 enabled applications run as systemd
3319 user services.
3320
3321 * Generators are now subject to masking via /etc and /run, the
3322 same way as unit files.
3323
3324 * networkd .network files gained support for configuring
3325 per-link IPv4/IPv6 packet forwarding as well as IPv4
3326 masquerading. This is by default turned on for veth links to
3327 containers, as registered by systemd-nspawn. This means that
3328 nspawn containers run with --network-veth will now get
3329 automatic routed access to the host's networks without any
3330 further configuration or setup, as long as networkd runs on
3331 the host.
3332
3333 * systemd-nspawn gained the --port= (-p) switch to expose TCP
3334 or UDP posts of a container on the host. With this in place
3335 it is possible to run containers with private veth links
3336 (--network-veth), and have their functionality exposed on
3337 the host as if their services were running directly on the
3338 host.
3339
dd2fd155 3340 * systemd-nspawn's --network-veth switch now gained a short
615aaf41
LP
3341 version "-n", since with the changes above it is now truly
3342 useful out-of-the-box. The systemd-nspawn@.service has been
3343 updated to make use of it too by default.
3344
3345 * systemd-nspawn will now maintain a per-image R/W lock, to
3346 ensure that the same image is not started more than once
3347 writable. (It's OK to run an image multiple times
3348 simultaneously in read-only mode.)
3349
3350 * systemd-nspawn's --image= option is now capable of
3351 dissecting and booting MBR and GPT disk images that contain
3352 only a single active Linux partition. Previously it
3353 supported only GPT disk images with proper GPT type
3354 IDs. This allows running cloud images from major
3355 distributions directly with systemd-nspawn, without
3356 modification.
3357
3358 * In addition to collecting mouse dpi data in the udev
3359 hardware database, there's now support for collecting angle
3360 information for mouse scroll wheels. The database is
7edecf21 3361 supposed to guarantee similar scrolling behavior on mice
615aaf41
LP
3362 that it knows about. There's also support for collecting
3363 information about Touchpad types.
3364
3365 * udev's input_id built-in will now also collect touch screen
3366 dimension data and attach it to probed devices.
3367
3368 * /etc/os-release gained support for a Distribution Privacy
3369 Policy link field.
3370
3371 * networkd gained support for creating "ipvlan", "gretap",
3372 "ip6gre", "ip6gretap" and "ip6tnl" network devices.
3373
3374 * systemd-tmpfiles gained support for "a" lines for setting
3375 ACLs on files.
3376
3377 * systemd-nspawn will now mount /tmp in the container to
3378 tmpfs, automatically.
3379
3380 * systemd now exposes the memory.usage_in_bytes cgroup
3381 attribute and shows it for each service in the "systemctl
3382 status" output, if available.
3383
3384 * When the user presses Ctrl-Alt-Del more than 7x within 2s an
3385 immediate reboot is triggered. This useful if shutdown is
3386 hung and is unable to complete, to expedite the
3387 operation. Note that this kind of reboot will still unmount
3388 all file systems, and hence should not result in fsck being
3389 run on next reboot.
3390
3391 * A .device unit for an optical block device will now be
3392 considered active only when a medium is in the drive. Also,
3393 mount units are now bound to their backing devices thus
3394 triggering automatic unmounting when devices become
3395 unavailable. With this in place systemd will now
3396 automatically unmount left-over mounts when a CD-ROM is
3397 ejected or an USB stick is yanked from the system.
3398
3399 * networkd-wait-online now has support for waiting for
3400 specific interfaces only (with globbing), and for giving up
3401 after a configurable timeout.
3402
3403 * networkd now exits when idle. It will be automatically
3404 restarted as soon as interfaces show up, are removed or
3405 change state. networkd will stay around as long as there is
3406 at least one DHCP state machine or similar around, that keep
3407 it non-idle.
3408
3409 * networkd may now configure IPv6 link-local addressing in
3410 addition to IPv4 link-local addressing.
3411
3412 * The IPv6 "token" for use in SLAAC may now be configured for
3413 each .network interface in networkd.
3414
3415 * Routes configured with networkd may now be assigned a scope
3416 in .network files.
3417
3418 * networkd's [Match] sections now support globbing and lists
3419 of multiple space-separated matches per item.
3420
11ea2781 3421 Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alin Rauta, Andrey Chaser,
d2c643c6
LP
3422 Bastien Nocera, Bruno Bottazzini, Carlos Garnacho, Carlos
3423 Morata Castillo, Chris Atkinson, Chris J. Arges, Christian
3424 Kirbach, Christian Seiler, Christoph Brill, Colin Guthrie,
3425 Colin Walters, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack,
3426 Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni, Erik Auerswald,
3427 Filipe Brandenburger, Frank Theile, Gabor Kelemen, Gabriel de
3428 Perthuis, Harald Hoyer, Hui Wang, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan
3429 Engelhardt, Jan Synacek, Jay Faulkner, Johannes Hölzl, Jonas
3430 Ådahl, Jonathan Boulle, Josef Andersson, Kay Sievers, Ken
3431 Werner, Lennart Poettering, Lucas De Marchi, Lukas Märdian,
3432 Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz Skalski, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas,
3433 Manuel Mendez, Marcel Holtmann, Marc Schmitzer, Marko
3434 Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Maxim Mikityanskiy, Michael Biebl,
3435 Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Mindaugas
11ea2781
LP
3436 Baranauskas, Moez Bouhlel, Naveen Kumar, Patrik Flykt, Paul
3437 Martin, Peter Hutterer, Peter Mattern, Philippe De Swert,
3438 Piotr Drąg, Rafael Ferreira, Rami Rosen, Robert Milasan, Ronny
3439 Chevalier, Sangjung Woo, Sebastien Bacher, Sergey Ptashnick,
3440 Shawn Landden, Stéphane Graber, Susant Sahani, Sylvain
3441 Plantefève, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tim JP, Tom
3442 Gundersen, Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar
d2c643c6
LP
3443 Lindskog, Veres Lajos, Vincent Batts, WaLyong Cho, Wieland
3444 Hoffmann, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
11ea2781 3445
ccddd104 3446 — Berlin, 2015-02-16
11ea2781 3447
d4f5a1f4
DH
3448CHANGES WITH 218:
3449
f9e00a9f
LP
3450 * When querying unit file enablement status (for example via
3451 "systemctl is-enabled"), a new state "indirect" is now known
3452 which indicates that a unit might not be enabled itself, but
c7683ffb 3453 another unit listed in its Also= setting might be.
f9e00a9f
LP
3454
3455 * Similar to the various existing ConditionXYZ= settings for
b938cb90 3456 units, there are now matching AssertXYZ= settings. While
f9e00a9f
LP
3457 failing conditions cause a unit to be skipped, but its job
3458 to succeed, failing assertions declared like this will cause
3459 a unit start operation and its job to fail.
3460
3461 * hostnamed now knows a new chassis type "embedded".
3462
3463 * systemctl gained a new "edit" command. When used on a unit
b938cb90 3464 file, this allows extending unit files with .d/ drop-in
f9e00a9f
LP
3465 configuration snippets or editing the full file (after
3466 copying it from /usr/lib to /etc). This will invoke the
3467 user's editor (as configured with $EDITOR), and reload the
3468 modified configuration after editing.
3469
3470 * "systemctl status" now shows the suggested enablement state
3471 for a unit, as declared in the (usually vendor-supplied)
3472 system preset files.
3473
3474 * nss-myhostname will now resolve the single-label host name
3475 "gateway" to the locally configured default IP routing
3476 gateways, ordered by their metrics. This assigns a stable
3477 name to the used gateways, regardless which ones are
3478 currently configured. Note that the name will only be
3479 resolved after all other name sources (if nss-myhostname is
3480 configured properly) and should hence not negatively impact
3481 systems that use the single-label host name "gateway" in
3482 other contexts.
3483
3484 * systemd-inhibit now allows filtering by mode when listing
3485 inhibitors.
3486
122676c9 3487 * Scope and service units gained a new "Delegate" boolean
b938cb90 3488 property, which, when set, allows processes running inside the
122676c9
LP
3489 unit to further partition resources. This is primarily
3490 useful for systemd user instances as well as container
3491 managers.
f9e00a9f
LP
3492
3493 * journald will now pick up audit messages directly from
3494 the kernel, and log them like any other log message. The
3495 audit fields are split up and fully indexed. This means that
3496 journalctl in many ways is now a (nicer!) alternative to
3497 ausearch, the traditional audit client. Note that this
b938cb90 3498 implements only a minimal audit client. If you want the
f9e00a9f
LP
3499 special audit modes like reboot-on-log-overflow, please use
3500 the traditional auditd instead, which can be used in
3501 parallel to journald.
3502
3503 * The ConditionSecurity= unit file option now understands the
3504 special string "audit" to check whether auditing is
3505 available.
3506
3507 * journalctl gained two new commands --vacuum-size= and
3508 --vacuum-time= to delete old journal files until the
a8eaaee7 3509 remaining ones take up no more than the specified size on disk,
f9e00a9f
LP
3510 or are not older than the specified time.
3511
3512 * A new, native PPPoE library has been added to sd-network,
3513 systemd's library of light-weight networking protocols. This
3514 library will be used in a future version of networkd to
3515 enable PPPoE communication without an external pppd daemon.
3516
3517 * The busctl tool now understands a new "capture" verb that