Merge pull request #5621 from zdohnal/cgigetarray-sigsegv
[thirdparty/cups.git] / README.md
1 README - CUPS v2.3.1 - 2019-10-07
2 =================================
3
4 INTRODUCTION
5 ------------
6
7 CUPS is a standards-based, open source printing system developed by Apple Inc.
8 for macOS® and other UNIX®-like operating systems. CUPS uses the Internet
9 Printing Protocol ("IPP") and provides System V and Berkeley command-line
10 interfaces, a web interface, and a C API to manage printers and print jobs. It
11 supports printing to both local (parallel, serial, USB) and networked printers,
12 and printers can be shared from one computer to another, even over the Internet!
13
14 Internally, CUPS uses PostScript Printer Description ("PPD") files to describe
15 printer capabilities and features and a wide variety of generic and device-
16 specific programs to convert and print many types of files. Sample drivers are
17 included with CUPS to support many Dymo, EPSON, HP, Intellitech, OKIDATA, and
18 Zebra printers. Many more drivers are available online and (in some cases) on
19 the driver CD-ROM that came with your printer.
20
21 CUPS is licensed under the Apache License Version 2.0. See the file
22 "LICENSE" for more information.
23
24
25 READING THE DOCUMENTATION
26 -------------------------
27
28 Initial documentation to get you started is provided in the root directory of
29 the CUPS sources:
30
31 - `CHANGES.md`: A list of changes in the current major release of CUPS.
32 - `CONTRIBUTING.md`: Guidelines for contributing to the CUPS project.
33 - `CREDITS.md`: A list of past contributors to the CUPS project.
34 - `DEVELOPING.md`: Guidelines for developing code for the CUPS project.
35 - `INSTALL.md`: Instructions for building and installing CUPS.
36 - `LICENSE`: The CUPS license agreement (Apache 2.0).
37 - `NOTICE`: Copyright notices and exceptions to the CUPS license agreement.
38 - `README.md`: This file.
39
40 Once you have installed the software you can access the documentation (and a
41 bunch of other stuff) online at <http://localhost:631/> and using the `man`
42 command, for example `man cups`.
43
44 If you're having trouble getting that far, the documentation is located under
45 the `doc/help` and `man` directories.
46
47 Please read the documentation before asking questions.
48
49
50 GETTING SUPPORT AND OTHER RESOURCES
51 -----------------------------------
52
53 If you have problems, *read the documentation first!* We also provide two
54 mailing lists which are available at <https://lists.cups.org/mailman/listinfo>.
55
56 See the CUPS web site at <https://www.cups.org/> for other resources.
57
58
59 SETTING UP PRINTER QUEUES USING YOUR WEB BROWSER
60 ------------------------------------------------
61
62 CUPS includes a web-based administration tool that allows you to manage
63 printers, classes, and jobs on your server. Open <http://localhost:631/admin/>
64 in your browser to access the printer administration tools:
65
66 *Do not* use the hostname for your machine - it will not work with the default
67 CUPS configuration. To enable administration access on other addresses, check
68 the `Allow Remote Administration` box and click on the `Change Settings` button.
69
70 You will be asked for the administration password (root or any other user in the
71 "sys", "system", "root", "admin", or "lpadmin" group on your system) when
72 performing any administrative function.
73
74
75 SETTING UP PRINTER QUEUES FROM THE COMMAND-LINE
76 -----------------------------------------------
77
78 CUPS currently uses PPD (PostScript Printer Description) files that describe
79 printer capabilities and driver programs needed for each printer. The
80 `everywhere` PPD is used for nearly all modern networks printers sold since
81 about 2009. For example, the following command creates a print queue for a
82 printer at address "11.22.33.44":
83
84 lpadmin -p printername -E -v ipp://11.22.33.44/ipp/print -m everywhere
85
86 CUPS also includes several sample PPD files you can use for "legacy" printers:
87
88 Driver | PPD Name
89 ----------------------------- | ------------------------------
90 Dymo Label Printers | drv:///sample.drv/dymo.ppd
91 Intellitech Intellibar | drv:///sample.drv/intelbar.ppd
92 EPSON 9-pin Series | drv:///sample.drv/epson9.ppd
93 EPSON 24-pin Series | drv:///sample.drv/epson24.ppd
94 Generic PCL Laser Printer | drv:///sample.drv/generpcl.ppd
95 Generic PostScript Printer | drv:///sample.drv/generic.ppd
96 HP DeskJet Series | drv:///sample.drv/deskjet.ppd
97 HP LaserJet Series | drv:///sample.drv/laserjet.ppd
98 OKIDATA 9-Pin Series | drv:///sample.drv/okidata9.ppd
99 OKIDATA 24-Pin Series | drv:///sample.drv/okidat24.ppd
100 Zebra CPCL Label Printer | drv:///sample.drv/zebracpl.ppd
101 Zebra EPL1 Label Printer | drv:///sample.drv/zebraep1.ppd
102 Zebra EPL2 Label Printer | drv:///sample.drv/zebraep2.ppd
103 Zebra ZPL Label Printer | drv:///sample.drv/zebra.ppd
104
105 You can run the `lpinfo -m` command to list all of the available drivers:
106
107 lpinfo -m
108
109 Run the `lpinfo -v` command to list the available printers:
110
111 lpinfo -v
112
113 Then use the correct URI to add the printer using the `lpadmin` command:
114
115 lpadmin -p printername -E -v device-uri -m ppd-name
116
117 Current network printers typically use `ipp` or `ipps` URIS:
118
119 lpadmin -p printername -E -v ipp://11.22.33.44/ipp/print -m everywhere
120 lpadmin -p printername -E -v ipps://11.22.33.44/ipp/print -m everywhere
121
122 Older network printers typically use `socket` or `lpd` URIs:
123
124 lpadmin -p printername -E -v socket://11.22.33.44 -m ppd-name
125 lpadmin -p printername -E -v lpd://11.22.33.44/ -m ppd-name
126
127 The sample drivers provide basic printing capabilities, but generally do not
128 exercise the full potential of the printers or CUPS. Other drivers provide
129 greater printing capabilities.
130
131
132 PRINTING FILES
133 --------------
134
135 CUPS provides both the System V `lp` and Berkeley `lpr` commands for printing:
136
137 lp filename
138 lpr filename
139
140 Both the `lp` and `lpr` commands support printing options for the driver:
141
142 lp -o media=A4 -o resolution=600dpi filename
143 lpr -o media=A4 -o resolution=600dpi filename
144
145 CUPS recognizes many types of images files as well as PDF, PostScript, and text
146 files, so you can print those files directly rather than through an application.
147
148 If you have an application that generates output specifically for your printer
149 then you need to use the `-oraw` or `-l` options:
150
151 lp -o raw filename
152 lpr -l filename
153
154 This will prevent the filters from misinterpreting your print file.
155
156
157 LEGAL STUFF
158 -----------
159
160 Copyright © 2007-2019 by Apple Inc.
161 Copyright © 1997-2007 by Easy Software Products.
162
163 CUPS is provided under the terms of the Apache License, Version 2.0 with
164 exceptions for GPL2/LGPL2 software. A copy of this license can be found in the
165 file `LICENSE`. Additional legal information is provided in the file `NOTICE`.
166
167 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed
168 under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR
169 CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the
170 specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.